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Why Vladimir Putin Suddenly Believes in Global Warming


President Vladimir Putin needs to go green quickly to stop the permafrost from melting, so that Russian oil and gas companies can keep pumping the hydrocarbons that are warming the planet and making the permafrost melt.

Even I’m struggling with the warped logic of that one, but it’s the conclusion I’ve reached from Russia’s sudden ratification of the Paris climate accord and from reading the latest report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.

Until now, climate change has been seen as a “good thing” for Russia — at least in part. Warming waters have opened up the Northern Sea Route across the top of the country and made it practical, if not necessarily economic, to search for and exploit oil and gas resources beneath the Arctic seas. Who remembers the Shtokman gas project?

Yet the warming that is opening up the Arctic seas may be starting to have a less beneficial effect on the frozen landmass of northern Russia, the heartland of the country’s oil and gas development and production.

In Retreat

Areas of discontinuous permafrost could see a 50-75% drop in load bearing capacity by 2015-25 compared with 1965-75

Sources: National Snow and Ice Data Center; Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme

“Permafrost is undergoing rapid change,” says the Ocean and Cryosphere in a Changing Climate report adopted by the IPCC last week. The changes threaten the “structural stability and functional capacities” of oil industry infrastructure, the authors warn. The greatest risks occur in areas with high ground-ice content and frost-susceptible sediments. Russia’s Yamal Peninsula — home to two of Russia’s biggest new gas projects (Bovanenkovo and Yamal LNG) and the Novy Port oil development — fits that bill.

The problem is bigger than those three projects, though. Some “45% of the oil and natural gas production fields in the Russian Arctic are located in the highest hazard zone,” according to the IPCC report.

The top few meters of the permafrost, the so-called active layer, freezes and thaws as the seasons change, becoming unstable during warmer months. Developers account for this by making sure their foundations are deep enough to support their infrastructure: including roads, railways, houses, processing plants and pipelines. But climate change is causing that active layer to deepen, which means the ground loses its ability to support the things built upon it. The loss of bearing capacity is dramatic and it’s already well under way, as this chart shows:

Not Bearing Up

Foundations in Russia’s permafrost regions can no longer bear the same loads they did in the 1980s

Source: Bloomberg, Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme

Foundations in the permafrost regions can no longer bear the loads they did as recently as the 1980s, according to a 2017 report by the Arctic Council’s Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Program. At Noviy Port the bearing capacity of foundations declined more than 20% between the 1980s and the first decade of this century.

On the Yamal Peninsula the ground’s bearing capacity is forecast to fall by 25%-50% on average in the 2015-2025 period, when compared with the years 1965-1975. Further south, in an area that includes Urengoy (the world’s second-largest natural gas field) and much of Russia’s older West Siberian gas production, the soil could lose 50-75% of its bearing capacity, according to AMAP.

That may not be such a big problem for Russia’s newest oil infrastructure, which was designed with climate change in mind. The processing trains and storage tanks at Yamal LNG sit atop 65,000 piles driven up to 28 meters into the permafrost. These are kept cold by a so-called “thermosyphon system” designed to ensure that the soil’s load-bearing capacity is maintained throughout the project’s life.

Yet these assumptions depend on the models used to predict the extent of warming and permafrost degradation. What if they’re overtaken by an unexpected climb in temperatures?

“Near-surface permafrost in the High Arctic and other very cold areas has warmed by more than 0.5°C since 2007–2009, and the layer of the ground that thaws in summer has deepened in most areas where permafrost is monitored,” according to the AMAP. Under a high emissions scenario, “the area of near-surface permafrost is projected to decrease by around 35%.”

Assets At Risk

Some of Russia’s largest oil and gas fields are at risk from thawing permafrost

Sources: Bloomberg; National Snow and Ice Data Center

While the impact of retreating permafrost on Russia’s new Arctic oil and gas developments can be mitigated, it adds to the price of the projects in an already high-cost environment. For older infrastructure the problems are worse. Gas production at the Bovanenkovo field on the Yamal Peninsula is expected to reach 140 billion cubic meters a year — more than Norway’s entire production — but it “has seen a recent increase in landslides related to thawing permafrost,” says the AMAP.

The Yamal Peninsula as a whole is slated to become one of the “three main Russian gas production centers with a potential annual output of 310–360 billion cubic meters of gas,” according to Russian energy giant Gazprom PJSC. That’s equal to half of all the gas produced in Russia last year.

Nevertheless, it may be too late to avoid much of the permafrost loss. AMAP says that even if greenhouse gas emissions were cut roughly in line with the targets in the Paris Agreement, that would only “stabilize near-surface permafrost extent at roughly 45% below current values.” Doing nothing would see an even greater loss and even more problems for Russia’s oil and gas producers. Is this the real reason for Putin’s sudden conversion?


28 Comments on "Why Vladimir Putin Suddenly Believes in Global Warming"

  1. Sissyfuss on Thu, 3rd Oct 2019 8:14 am 

    Of course Bloomberg gives nary a peep about the boreal forests of Siberia, like its cousins in Canada and Alaska, that are burning up with increased regularity and scope. Turning massive carbon sinks into carbon emitters will most assuredly exacerbate the permafrost melting dilemma. But Bloombog is concerned only with the financial threats to the northern climes, not the existential threats to the entire biosphere.

  2. Shortend on Thu, 3rd Oct 2019 8:50 am 

    Russia is one country that lives or does financially on the price of oil and other resources. These oil exporting states can not tolerate any zero emissions policy by the global community. Unless they want to starve.

  3. JuanP on Thu, 3rd Oct 2019 9:34 am 

    I am so elated by the concern shown by Bloomberg for Russia’s future. We all know how much Western propaganda outlets love and admire Russia, and how accurate and truthful their reporting on the subject is.
    Everything President Putin does is for the good of Russia and its people. Did we ever have a leader like that in the West? If Putin signed it’s because he reached the conclusion that it is what is best for Russia; it’s that simple!

  4. Davy on Thu, 3rd Oct 2019 10:16 am 

    Stupid naked comment by the board troll. Show us some content you ignorant fuck. Say something. We know you would sucks putin’s Cock if you could. Oh and please get triggered with some ID theft.

  5. Robert Inget on Thu, 3rd Oct 2019 10:36 am 

    Putin must also be worried about Siberian gas pipelines subject to collapse.

    Pipelines are like chains, one linkage break is quite enough to crash the entire system.

    Alaska, that state we bot from Russia, is also melting at an advanced rate. There’s simply not enough oil remaining to rebuild current pipelines.

    Proof, Exxon is selling their Alaskan pipeline interests.(before it turns to scrap).

  6. Robert Inget on Thu, 3rd Oct 2019 11:03 am 

    We have about four weeks of lower oil prices boys and girl.

    Oil should start recovering fast in 3/4 weeks after we pass the lowest point of the maintenance, deplete some gasoline/distillate stockpiles worldwide and start feeling tightness at destination ports due to much lower shipments by Saudis in H2 of September.

    Expect Saudis shipments to USA to drop to zero at some point except to refine for export elsewhere.

    KSA is America’s second largest contributor of
    heavy crude. Venezuela, formally #3 is down to ZERO.

    Shale oil is ultra light and gassy.

    All out efforts to STOP pipeline REPLACEMENT
    much less new outlets for Canada’s CRUDE are
    underway big time.

    Older lines represent a clear danger. Enviros
    want to see them closed. NOT replaced.
    If, when, Line 3 gets closed, a following winter will kill hundreds of poor folks who voted Democrat.
    (dead folks can’t vote)

    Bottom line. With Can/US pipelines already dancing as fast as they can, W/O Saudi crude. Expect economy killing, highest oil prices in US history. (in dead of winter)

  7. supremacist muzzies jerk on Thu, 3rd Oct 2019 11:12 am 

    supertard SAW SAWS pbuh swt you stil need to explain why you so pissed off on tuesday and the episode in the continuum of the same day

  8. JuanP on Thu, 3rd Oct 2019 11:14 am 

    Delusional Davy “Stupid naked comment by the board troll. Show us some content you ignorant fuck. Say something. We know you would sucks putin’s Cock if you could. Oh and please get triggered with some ID theft.”
    You are projecting again, Exceptionalist! Now go suck your goats’ cocks and dream of Putin’s! ROFLMFAO!

  9. Davy on Thu, 3rd Oct 2019 11:53 am 

    low IQ Miami Beach faggot can’t debate a topic. He projects. LMFAO at the lunatic

  10. Jerome Purtzer on Thu, 3rd Oct 2019 2:43 pm 

    If Juan were to buff Putin’s little horn he’d have to get in line behind Trump, Moscow Mitch, Manafort, and the majority of the Republican Party.

  11. jawagord on Thu, 3rd Oct 2019 9:07 pm 

    Since it is impossible for the Paris accord to have any affect on Climate and permafrost I think the writer should look to a more obvious plausibility.

    According to the experts, this will reduce Russia’s reputation losses and the risks of imposing hydrocarbon customs duties on it, but won’t nullify them, Kommersant writes.

    “According to Igor Makarov, Head of the School of World Economy at National Research University Higher School of Economics, Russia’s accession is an important step symbolizing that it shares the world community’s consensus about the need to fight climate change and move towards a low-hydrocarbon future. However, it will remain symbolic unless it is confirmed by real measures, like introducing state controls over emissions and outlining a clear strategy how Russia’s economy, which now is critically dependent on fuel exports, will adapt to a future where this fuel will apparently take a back seat, he stressed.”

  12. majece majece on Fri, 4th Oct 2019 1:23 am 

    On you can get useful info about hacking facebook account. It’s really important to know these days

  13. REAL Green on Fri, 4th Oct 2019 7:02 am 

    “Major Texas solar project underway to add relief for overloaded grid” upi

    “IRVING, Texas, Oct. 2 (UPI) — Wind power production is setting records in Texas, but an energy revolution is expected from a project to develop utility-scale solar electricity that will help double the state’s sun-harnessing capabilities over the next two years and ease demands on an often-overloaded power grid. Those plans include Misae I and II, two of the largest utility-scale solar projects in the United States, and increased production of utility-scale batteries — all of which has the potential to substantially increase the marketability of renewable energy…Experts say generating power from a mix of fossil fuels and renewable energy will be crucial for a state that continually requires more electricity to meet daily needs, particularly during hot Texas summers…For the first time in history, production of wind power topped coal power in Texas over the first six months of 2019. But the trouble with wind, some experts say, is there often isn’t enough during the peak summer heat…Together, the projects will produce more than 1 gigawatt of electricity on 5,000 acres, from more than 2.6 million solar panels…The goal, they say, is to combine the intermittent nature of renewable energy with batteries and allow artificial intelligence to decide when it’s best to charge the battery and when to move the stored power to the grid. Experts say the “holy grail” would be the ability to harness wind power at night to charge the batteries, rather than dispensing it onto the grid at negative prices. The battery could then send the power to the grid when demand is higher, Lasher said. The same goes for solar power from the morning sun — storing the power until the afternoon when demand soars.”

  14. Robert Inget on Fri, 4th Oct 2019 9:46 am 

    TerraForm Power Inc NASDAQ: TERP

    Utilities : Independent Power & Renewable Electricity Producers | Small Cap BlendCompany profile
    TerraForm Power, Inc. is a United States-based that owns and operates renewable power portfolio of solar and wind assets. This includes solar and wind assets located in the United States, Canada and other markets. Its clean power generation assets serve utility, commercial and residential customers. The Company’s portfolio consisted of renewable energy facilities located in the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom and Chile with a combined nameplate capacity of over 3634 megawatts. Its projects includes AP North Lake , Regulus Solar, Renew-1, Atwell Island, Mt. Signal, Alamosa, Bluebird, Kaheawa Phase 1, SunE Perpetual Lindsday, Marsh Hill, Woodville, Sandringham, Raleigh, Lestenergia, Seron 1,Seron 2, and CAP.

    Shameless ‘plug’.

  15. Robert Inget on Fri, 4th Oct 2019 9:53 am 

    Shipping Fuel Is About to Get Cleaner. What It Means for Investors. —
    Today 6:59 AM ET (Dow Jones)Print
    By Avi Salzman

    Global trade is powered in large part by one of the dirtiest fuels on the planet.

    Every year, some 60,000 oceangoing freight ships carry $7 trillion in goods and commodities around the world. Just one of the largest of those ships can belch as much sulfur oxide gas — a major contributor to acid rain and respiratory diseases — as 50 million diesel-burning cars.

    Now, big changes are coming, changes that will reorder the oil and shipping markets — and perhaps make the planet a cleaner place. For investors, the shift presents big opportunities.

    Ships will need to use cleaner fuel or be outfitted with new exhaust systems to abide by new international rules that go into effect on Jan. 1.

    “It’s the biggest thing happening in the freight market and in the oil market,” says Tor Svelland, chief investment officer at Svelland Capital, a hedge fund that started a new fund this year to profit off the changes. He thinks the new rules will cause a demand spike in the oil market four to six times as big as 2008, when oil rose to $145 from the high $80s.

    U.S. companies may have the most to gain. Indeed, industry groups representing U.S. oil explorers and refiners are so confident that it will help their businesses that they are lobbying to make sure the Trump administration doesn’t try to delay the rules.

    Expected beneficiaries include refiners like Valero Energy (ticker: VLO) and Marathon Petroleum (MPC) that process low-sulfur fuel, and companies that transport and store crude and refined products. Some shipping companies should also gain, despite high upfront costs.

    Others are using derivatives to play the changes. Some hedge funds are betting on a shift in fuel prices, under the expectation that the price of cleaner marine fuels will jump in value.

    The fuel that ships currently use literally comes from the bottom of the refining barrel. The new rules, adopted in 2016 by the International Maritime Organization, or IMO, an agency of the United Nations, mandate that the maximum sulfur content in marine fuels be reduced to 0.5% from 3.5%. A 2016 study by the Finnish Meteorological Institute predicted that the rules could extend the lives of 570,000 people who would have died prematurely from 2020 to 2025.

    It is an enormous shift, affecting as much as 5% of global oil demand. And it won’t come cheap.

    The dirtier fuel costs roughly $325 a ton, while one kind of compliant fuel goes for $600, according to IHS Markit. And that spread could widen further once the deadline passes.

    IMO 2020, as the new rules are called, could cost the shipping industry $60 billion a year to put into effect, according to energy research firm Wood Mackenzie. Assuming full compliance, the total cost of the regulations could be as much as $240 billion, Goldman Sachs estimates — with much of that cost eventually borne by consumers.

    Those costs will first fall on shipowners. They can switch to cleaner marine fuels, install “scrubbers” that can reduce emissions from sulfur-heavy fuel — or try to skirt the regulations.

    Evading detection could prove difficult, however. The IMO has broad authority to set rules for international shipping, and countries around the world are expected to enforce compliance.

    Despite the costs, some investors expect certain shipping companies to benefit from the changes. Those that install scrubbers, for instance, can run their ships on sulfur-heavy fuel oil, which will probably get much cheaper once other shipowners are forced to buy low-sulfur blends.

    “Shipping companies that install the scrubbers should be more profitable in the near term, as the spread between high and low sulfur fuel continues to grow,” David Marcus, CEO of Evermore Global Advisors, wrote in an email to Barron’s.

    Among Evermore’s holdings is Frontline (FRO), which operates tankers that carry crude around the world. Evermore owns nearly 3% of the company. Frontline will benefit because the U.S. is likely to export more crude as IMO 2020 is adopted, in part because U.S. crude is lighter and easier to turn into low-sulfur shipping fuel. In addition, Frontline has a 28.9% equity stake in privately held FMSI, which makes scrubbers.

    Evermore also owns Scorpio Tankers (STNG), another tanker company, which transports refined products. Scorpio’s fleet comprises mostly newer ships. Marcus expects companies with older fleets to scrap ships that are too old to make it worth installing a scrubber.

    Jonathan Chappell of Evercore ISI says the new rules could help the industry’s supply-demand balance. Shipyards are already backed up with ships that need scrubbers. “That’s removing a lot of capacity,” he says. “It’s over 1% of the fleet, which doesn’t sound like a lot, but it’s an industry with a very delicate supply-demand balance.”

    Svelland agrees that shipowners are likely to scrap older ships. “And steel prices are high, so the scrap value of the older tankers is very high,” he says. He likes Frontline and Scorpio, as well as Teekay Tankers (TNK), Golden Ocean Group (GOGL), Star Bulk Carriers (SBLK), and DHT Holdings (DHT).

    The biggest impact is likely to be in the petroleum markets, affecting commodity prices and the companies that refine and move fuel around the world. Only 5% of the world’s merchant ships are expected to add scrubbers by January, meaning that most will need to start buying cleaner fuels.

    Svelland is primarily playing IMO 2020 with commodity futures. Marine gas oil, which complies with the new rules, is likely to become more expensive before Jan. 1. Svelland doesn’t think the shift is fully priced into futures yet. “People are just waiting to see if this is actually happening,” he says.

    This has been a complicated trade, however. Refiners are starting to shift their production to provide lower-sulfur fuel oil, but ships are still using the dirty stuff.

    “The supply of high-sulfur fuel oil has started to decline in preparation for that decrease in demand, but the demand hasn’t actually gone away yet,” says Kurt Barrow, an oil expert at IHS Markit. “That has created a shortage in the supply today that is holding that price up.” And refiners are now making a new product called very low sulfur oil that could pull demand from marine oil.

    Other U.S. energy players are well situated to profit. U.S. crude is known for being lighter than crude produced in other countries like Venezuela and Canada. Lighter crude is easier to refine into marine oil, so there is a good chance that demand for U.S. crude from overseas refineries will rise, helping domestic producers.

    The companies that transport and store those products will likewise profit. Among those beneficiaries is Enterprise Products Partners (EPD), which is expanding its capacity at shipping terminals to make it easier for oil companies to ship crude and petroleum products overseas. Magellan Midstream Partners (MMP) is similarly building out its crude export facilities, and is well positioned to profit, according to a recent report from energy analytics company Alerian. PBF Logistics (PBFX) signed a deal with Maersk this year to process and store IMO 2020-compliant fuel in New Jersey.

    “It’s a positive, no doubt,” says Chris Eades, a portfolio manager who manages midstream funds for ClearBridge Investments. Eades sees IMO 2020 as one aspect of the much larger trend of growing U.S. crude exports. His largest investment is in Enterprise, and he calls Magellan a “core holding” too.

    U.S. refiners are in a good position, too. Most domestic refineries were designed to process heavy crude. They make relatively little heavy-sulfur fuel, so they won’t be hurt by the new rules. And they will benefit from higher demand for products like marine gas oil, as shipowners scramble to find compliant fuel.

    “The result is potentially a swing of upward of three million barrels a day of demand from lower-quality, high-sulfur fuel oil to some sort of distillate,” says Morningstar analyst Allen Good. And as the price spread between high-quality and low-quality fuel oil widens, better refineries that can refine heavier crude oils should profit.

    “I don’t think it’s reflected in the prices of the refiners,” Good says. “They look pretty cheap,” he adds, pointing to Valero and Marathon Petroleum, two of the largest U.S. refinery companies.

    Larger oil companies like Exxon Mobil (XOM) also own refineries, but their stocks move on other factors. “The integrated firms aren’t as much of a pure play on IMO as the refiners,” Good says.

    The market’s reaction to IMO 2020 may take a while to play out, and there is always the wild card that the Trump administration tries to slow the rollout of the regulations. A White House spokesperson did not respond to requests for comment.

    Yet U.S. refiners and oil producers have joined together to support the rules. Given the momentum, investors should anticipate that the rules are coming.

    “The U.S., is a signatory to it; it’s a U.N. action,” Good says. “In political terms, there is no real constituency behind not doing it. It seems like the boat has sailed.”

    Write to Avi Salzman at

    (END) Dow Jones Newswires

    October 04, 2019 06:59 ET (10:59 GMT)

  16. Robert Inget on Fri, 4th Oct 2019 10:10 am 

    Despite the long article posted above, there are
    downsides for OUR climate.

    1) These new regs will extend the use of oil for
    long distance shipping. Fact, more oil than ever.

    2) The on board scrubbers mentioned Exhaust directly into the OCEAN. Heaven only knows how
    marine life can exist in a toxic asid soup.

    3) How much CO/2 can OUR oceans contain?

    Solutions? Use less, not more oil. But how?

    Nuclear power for large vessels is a proven tech.

    Wind power for large vessels might double or triple ‘sail’ time. So what? If self driving cars and trucks are already a thing, why not big (tall) ships? Several solar powered ships are already crossing the Atlantic. (a ‘ship’ carries ‘boats’)

    Contaminating oceans instead of air is not progress.

  17. JuanP on Fri, 4th Oct 2019 11:18 am 

    Rossneft will no longer accept US Dollars as payment for Russian oil exports.
    This is after the US government applied sanctions against Rossneft last week. The USA is digging its own grave. I LOVE TRUMP! I would become an American citizen just to vote for the motherfucker!

  18. Duncan Idaho on Fri, 4th Oct 2019 11:50 am 

    This is after the US government applied sanctions against Rossneft last week. The USA is digging its own grave.
    Well, the Fat Boy has been bankrupt 6 times–
    Is it just a tradition?

  19. REAL Green on Fri, 4th Oct 2019 12:07 pm 

    FYI, folks, I wants to play today. You ask me to spare you the noise for even 1 day but I don’t give a shit about anybody but myself. I have multi-polar personalities. And they are all equally stupid, rude and unpleasant. Just like me!

  20. JuanP ID garbage on Fri, 4th Oct 2019 12:12 pm 

    REAL Green said FYI, folks, I wants to play today. You ask me to s…

    Davy said My mommy always told me I’d never mount to n…

    Davy ID theft and sock garbage said FYI, folks, I wants to play today. You ask me to s…

  21. Davy on Fri, 4th Oct 2019 12:14 pm 

    “I LOVE TRUMP! I would become an American citizen just to vote for the motherfucker!”

    I hope you get deported for criminal activity soon. Psychopaths like you eventually end up in criminal activity. You likely already have done some nasty shit.

  22. JuanP telling on himself on Fri, 4th Oct 2019 12:17 pm 

    JuanP on Thu, 30th Jun 2016 4:56 pm
    Go Trump! Anyone but Hillary! My wife and I are considering volunteering for the Trump campaign to fight the narcissistic, psychopathic bitch.

    I think I could use my antisocial, psychopathic, sociopathic skills to convince people to vote for Trump. I can be very convincing when I want and I am excellent at manipulating people.

  23. JuanP personality type on Fri, 4th Oct 2019 12:17 pm 

    narcissistic sociopathy, or what some circles might call “psychopathy”. Criminology indicates that not all criminals are full blown narcissistic sociopaths, but most full blown narcissistic sociopaths are criminals. Some are simply more successful criminals than others, and this usually depends on their ability to blend in and mimic or manipulate normal people. Full blown narcissistic sociopaths (or psychopaths) make up around 1% of any given population, but are responsible for the vast majority of violent crimes or criminal enterprises. The lion’s share of justice system resources are used in dealing with these people, as they are four to eight times more likely than the average person to use violence in daily interactions or as a tool to gain advantage, and twenty-five times more likely to end up in prison. There is a long list of character traits that make a narcissistic sociopath, but the defining features are a complete lack of conscience and empathy, a propensity for moral relativism (the ability to rationalize any and all destructive behavior), a desperate need to be adored or admired by everyone around them, a feeling of being “more special” than most people, a feeling of superiority, delusions of grandeur or an inherent right to manage the lives of others, an obsessive need to control and manipulate, impulsive desires and deviant sexual inclinations, and elitist associations (they will only associate with people they feel are like them and are “equally superior”). A defining fact of narcissistic sociopathy is that these traits are inborn, not a product of environment. In some cases environment can play a role in activating these traits, but if a person is not born with them, they generally do not adopt them later in life because of a traumatic environment. The following documentaries linked here and here are an excellent overview of high level narcissistic sociopaths. Narcissistic sociopaths defy all forms of treatment and cannot be reformed. They have no concrete personality beyond these traits, therefore, if you remove the traits, they are left with nothing else. They are almost anti-human; while most people are born with unique personality combinations, narcissistic sociopaths have none, so they mimic the personalities of those around them, mirroring behaviors and collecting or stealing quirks.

  24. Cloggie on Fri, 4th Oct 2019 12:56 pm 

    “New Danish test centre for +20 MW wind turbines”

  25. JuanP on Fri, 4th Oct 2019 3:55 pm 

    Delusional Davy “Psychopaths like you eventually end up in criminal activity. You likely already have done some nasty shit.”
    You are projecting again, Exceptionalist! ROFLMFAO!

  26. Duncan Idaho on Fri, 4th Oct 2019 5:02 pm 

    The cadaver that is the USA, a ruptured spleen of financial criminality, is in it’s end stage of sucking the life of the world, it’s host.

    Possibly, but it might be more complicated.

  27. JuanP ID theft and sock garbage on Fri, 4th Oct 2019 5:17 pm 

    supremacist muzzies jerk said i do’t have a direct answer but maybe the fo…

    Davy Sock Puppet said asg70 on Fri, 4th Oct 2019 4:27 pm

    Davy said The link I provided was to zero hedge. dumbass

  28. Dredd on Mon, 7th Oct 2019 12:24 pm 

    It is a slow Karma Blowout (The Harm Oil-Qaeda Has Done – 2).

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