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‘Peak Coal’ is Getting Closer, Latest Figures Show


Total global coal capacity continues to inch up, but a peak is on the horizon. In the first half of 2018, retired capacity has nearly matched newly operating plants and the global pipeline for proposed coal is quickly eroding.

This is according to CoalSwarm’s latest Global Coal Plant Tracker results, which we completed in July 2018. Our figures confirm the sector is in the midst of rapid change. [Carbon Brief recently used the data from the tracker to produce a global coal plant map and timeline.]

Even if global coal capacity peaks soon, however, the sector is set to breach its share of internationally agreed climate goals — unless large numbers of coal plants retire early.

Dramatic changes

The most dramatic changes are taking place in China and India, which are both dealing with a growing number of coal plants operating well below optimal levels or are frozen in construction. In China, this is primarily due to power overcapacity. In India, it is due to financial issues and increasing competition from renewable power.

The table below shows that while some countries have a significant amount of planned or under-construction coal capacity, the amount under development does not nearly match the scale of development in China and India, particularly over the past decade. Many of the plans in these other countries are highly reliant on foreign aid, as discussed below.

Country Pipeline (MW) Share Country Operating (MW) Share
China 202,664 34% China 957,280 48%
India 102,699 17% United States 265,844 13%
Vietnam 45,325 8% India 219,015 11%
Turkey 38,849 6% Germany 48,375 2%
Indonesia 33,911 6% Russia 47,184 2%
Bangladesh 23,178 4% Japan 44,912 2%
Japan 15,114 3% South Africa 42,281 2%
Egypt 12,640 2% South Korea 37,773 2%
Philippines 12,468 2% Poland 29,405 1%
Pakistan 11,450 2% Indonesia 28,472 1%

Top 10 countries with coal power capacity (Megawatts) under development (construction and pre-construction, left) and operating (right). Source: Global Coal Plant Tracker, July 2018.

To date, 28 countries have committed to phase out coal use, although none of the countries include the 10 shown above that are home to 85% of the world’s existing coal plants. However, Germany is planning a coal phase out, and past and planned retirements put the US on track to close a near-record amount of coal plant capacity this year.

Coal pipeline shrinks again

The amount of coal power capacity in pre-construction stages has declined every year since 2015. So far, 2018 has been no exception, with proposed capacity dropping 20% in the first half of 2018 (January to June), from 447 gigawatts (GW) at the end of 2017 to 364GW by July 1, 2018, a decline of 83GW. Overall, the pre-construction pipeline has fallen two-thirds since 2015, when it was 1,090GW.

Planned coal power capacity in pre-construction status has declined from 1,090GW in 2015 to 364GW in July 2018, with the biggest drops in China (light blue) and India (dark blue). Source: Global Coal Plant Tracker, July 2018.

Planned new coal capacity has been cancelled around the world, with particularly rapid falls in China and India. At the end of 2015, China had plans to build 515GW of new coal capacity. That figure now stands at 76GW. In India, the pre-construction pipeline has shrunk from 218GW in 2015 to 63GW today.

Most notably, our figures show that less than 2GW of new coal capacity has been proposed in either China or India in 2018 – a significant development for the two countries that have been the site of 85% of the world’s new coal power capacity since 2006.

While some analysts predicted the drop in China and India might be replaced with an increase throughout other parts of the world, the pipeline across the rest of the world also continues to decline. Notably, Japan has called off 3.6GW of proposed coal capacity since 2017, while South Korea will stop issuing permits for new coal plants.

More construction in China

Although the pre-construction pipeline for new coal has declined, coal power capacity under construction increased 27GW in the first half of 2018, from 209GW at the end of 2017 to 236GW by July 2018, shown in the chart below.

This increase is due to China (light blue), which is moving forward with a number of coal plants that were thought to be postponed, if not cancelled. Still, global capacity under construction has fallen nearly a third since 2015, when 339GW was being built.

Coal power capacity under construction declined from 339GW in 2015 to 209GW in 2017, but went up to 326GW in July 2018, as China (light blue) began or continued construction on coal plants thought to be postponed by the central government. Source: Global Coal Plant Tracker, July 2018.

China continues to deal with a backlog of about 260GW of coal power capacity authorised for construction from late 2014 to 2016, according to regional government data. During this time permitting authority was transferred from the central government to the provinces, who have used coal plants as a source of quick economic growth.

To rein in growing overcapacity, China’s central government began instituting a series of proposals in 2016 to slow the pace of new coal plants being built. These proposals covered 430GW under various stages of development — comparable to the entire fleets of the US and India combined.

About 54GW of that capacity has since moved into construction, according to the CoalSwarm database, although it must now be authorised before connecting to the grid, reportedly to ensure compliance with central government provisions.

The three other countries that began construction on new coal capacity in 2018 were Indonesia (0.9GW), Japan (1.4GW) and Taiwan (0.8GW).

Peak coal capacity near

From January through to June 2018, nearly 20GW of new coal capacity was commissioned: 12GW in China (blue area in the chart, below) , 5GW in India (red), and 3GW in the rest of the world (South Africa, Pakistan, Vietnam, Philippines and Japan).

Top: Coal power capacity additions and retirements (gigawatts) between 2000 and July 2018 (coloured columns) and the global net change (black line). Bottom: The number of coal units added and retired by country (coloured columns) and the global net change (black line). Source: Global Coal Plant Tracker, July 2018.

While significant, the amount of coal power capacity that began operating during the first half of 2018 (20GW) was nearly matched by the amount retired (16GW), for a net increase of just 4GW – the slowest rate of growth on record. If the slowdown continues global coal capacity should peak by 2022, if not sooner.

About 12GW of the retired capacity was in the US, with another 6GW planned to close by end-2018. This would make 2018 the second-highest year for US coal retirements after 2015, which had 21GW of retirements. In the EU, retirements in the first half of 2018 were less than 1GW, well below the region’s annual average of 5GW over the past decade. However, more than half of its current member countries have committed to phase out coal by 2030.

Nearly 3GW of coal capacity was retired in China and India in the first half of 2018. India has proposed 48GW of coal plant retirements through to 2027, mainly end of life, subcritical coal plants and those ill-equipped to meet new pollution standards. China has outlined plans to close small coal plants under 300MW, which make up about 20% of its current 957GW of coal power capacity, although they can be replaced by new “ultra-low-emission” coal-fired units.

In June, Carbon Brief noted the number of coal units in the world could already have peaked, as countries including China phase out older, smaller units. In the first six months of 2018 that peak was passed, with 43 units added and 52 retired, meaning the global coal fleet shrank by nine units.

Coal and climate change

Coal is the biggest global contributor to heat-trapping CO2, making it essential to phase out its emissions to meet international climate goals.

The most cost-effective route to meeting the Paris Agreement’s “well below” 2C limit would see richer OECD and EU nations ending unabated coal use by 2030, China by 2040, and the rest of the world by 2050, according to climate science NGO Climate Analytics. (The IEA’s “well-below 2C” scenario sees unabated coal use ending by 2040 worldwide.)

However, just the currently operating coal capacity of these regions already exceeds those targets, even without new development. The figure below shows total coal capacity through to 2060 if all operating coal plants retire as currently scheduled, or at 40 years of age — the current average retirement age — with plants that are already older than 40 years closing by 2030.

Currently operating coal power capacity in the OECD/EU (blue), China (red), and the rest of the world (green) retired at 40 years of age will exceed Paris agreement coal phase-out dates (shaded areas).

The shaded areas show coal power capacity operating in each region beyond the phase-out deadlines suggested by Climate Analytics. This excess amounts to 198GW in OECD/EU nations, 844GW in China and 199GW in the rest of the world.

If this excess capacity is not retired early — implying potential stranded asset losses for plant operators — then other sectors of the economy would have to cut CO2 even faster, or the Paris temperature limit would likely be breached.

Proposed funding highly concentrated

In the latest CoalSwarm update, we estimate that Chinese, Japanese, or South Korean governmental and private institutions are funding, or have proposed to fund, more than two-fifths (41%) of all capacity under development outside China and India. Chinese organisations alone account for nearly 30% of the total.

This does not mean that all the projects will be funded by banks or organisations in these three countries, but it does show the growing role they play in global coal plant development. Chinese, Japanese, and Korean construction companies and power equipment manufacturers often compete for contracts and, as part of the bidding, may offer funding assistance. Host countries are often looking for funding as the World Bank severely restricted coal financing in 2013, and an increasing number of major international banks and insurance firms have committed to end coal financing.

Increasingly, the coal plant industry appears to be moving from a predominantly national model of development and domestic coal supply — as pursued by the US, Australia and much of Europe, followed by China and India — to a more trans-national model under which construction, funding and coal supply or mining are often outsourced.

This model dominates many of the countries with the most coal plants under development outside China and India, including IndonesiaPakistanBangladesh and Vietnam. Chinese financing is also behind recent large coal plant proposals in Russia and Egypt, and is also playing a growing role in BosniaSerbia and Turkey, often reviving plants that appeared to be shelved for lack of funds.

Stranded assets

Both China and India are now struggling with excess coal power capacity that is competing with declining costs and government mandates for lower-carbon alternatives. This means a growing number of coal plants are operating well below their designed utilisation rates, leading to less income than expected for operators. These excess coal plants risk becoming stranded assets, unable to earn an economic return on investment.

The Indian government estimates 40GW of the country’s coal plants are financially stressed, including 25GW that have been completed without any power purchase commitments. This number may grow, as financial thinktank Carbon Tracker estimates nearly 30% of the country’s operating coal plants are more expensive to run than the lowest 2017 bids for solar power.

State power company NTPC in July 2018 cited low renewable costs when it suspended plans for new coal. Overall, 695GW of proposed coal power capacity has been shelved or cancelled in India since 2010 – over three times its operating capacity of 219 GW.

China is also dealing with excess coal plant capacity. From 2006 to mid-2018 China commissioned 70% (715GW) of the world’s new coal-fired capacity. That rapid expansion — coupled with the 2014–2016 spurt in provincial coal permitting — is now rubbing up against the country’s ambitious renewable goals. The average utilisation rate for thermal plants fell below 50% in 2015, where it has stayed, meaning Chinese power company profits from coal power are fast eroding.

In response to the overcapacity problem, China’s 13th five-year plan caps total coal capacity at 1,100GW in 2020. Yet, even with the cap, the country is facing over 200GWof excess coal capacity, according to some estimates, with further coal plants representing potentially billions of dollars of wasted capital. The country needs to strengthen its coal plant restrictions and increase retirements to prevent further excess coal-fired capacity.

The Global Coal Plant Tracker is an online database developed by CoalSwarm that maps and describes every operating coal-fired generating unit and every new unit proposed since 1 January, 2010 (30MW and larger). Collaborators include GreenpeaceSierra ClubCAN EuropeGreenID and Kiko Network.

Carbon Brief

28 Comments on "‘Peak Coal’ is Getting Closer, Latest Figures Show"

  1. Cloggie on Wed, 22nd Aug 2018 10:26 pm 

    OMG, here we have a club called “CoalSwarm” that makes exactly the same mistake as the Heinberg crew made in that they assume that “peak coal = peak coventional coal”, where said Heinberg character had burned his b*t with promoting the similar fake equation: “peak oil = peak conventional oil”.

    But just like luminaries as the IEA and US Geological Survey have pointed out that effectively non-conventional oil reserves were expanded with 4.5 trillion new barrel of oil over the past few decades…

    …likewise over the past few years it has become clear that in the North Sea bed there are coal reserves in magnitudes that dwarf anything we have seen in the past:

    Not that the CoalSwarmers will take notice, they will prefer to snore on and keep dining out on the time-tested “peak anything” concept.

  2. Mike on Thu, 23rd Aug 2018 3:18 am 

    Cloggie If we keep redefining what oil and coal is then it’s infinite. We can make limitless amounts of synthetic oil if we had the energy to make it. The fact is peak oil/ peak coal means after this point the energy available to society declines, living standards go down (check) wages stagnate or decline (check) infrastructure collapses (check) food becomes more expensive (check) basically people have to run harder to stay on the treadmill (check)

    We passed peak oil, things are declining and will continue to do so for the next hundred years and that’s not even taking into account climate change and the increased costs that will have on society.

  3. Antius on Thu, 23rd Aug 2018 6:22 am 

    Mike is correct. The Energy Cost of Energy has been increasing for the past few decades, and has seen a sharp increase since 2000, which is when the current financial problems facing the global economy started to become increasingly apparent in the form of increasing government and consumer debt and rising income inequality. These problems are directly related to the increasing cost of energy.

    The fact that the Earth has huge quantities of low grade fossil fuels is besides the point. We burn these fuels for energy. The systems and infrastructure we have in place all require a certain level of energy expenditure per unit of GDP. So if energy costs are rising, it is difficult for consuming economies to function profitably with enough spare resources to maintain infrastructure and invest in new economic growth. Hence, we have seen declining growth in most G10 economies; degrading infrastructure, falling wages and a huge overhang of unfunded pension liabilities.

    Very soon, we will be facing a reckoning of sorts in the next global financial crisis. At this point it will be an undeniable reality that global energy resources are no longer able to support the lifestyles to which we have become accustomed.

  4. Davy on Thu, 23rd Aug 2018 6:41 am 

    “These problems are directly related to the increasing cost of energy.”

    I agree but not to the degree of saying energy is the primary issue. Our behavior is the primary problem. Our behavior leads to unsustainable needs of energy, food, and water. So this leads me to believe even if we had an energy breakthrough it will not be enough except with a breakthrough in human behavior. I am not optimistic for behavioral changes. Usually real behavior changes occur with crisis. It appears it will take a mother of all crisis to change our behavior. Such a crisis is may not survivable.

  5. JuanP on Thu, 23rd Aug 2018 7:16 am 

    Davy “I agree but not to the degree of saying energy is the primary issue. Our behavior is the primary problem. Our behavior leads to unsustainable needs of energy, food, and water.”

    I agree. I reached the same conclusion looking at it from another perspective. I think that even if we hadn’t had fossil fuels available to us we would have still destroyed the environment and made most, if not all, of the planet uninhabitable just burning grass and trees, and through deforestation, soil erosion, pollution, desertification, etc.

  6. Apples and Avacados on Thu, 23rd Aug 2018 9:36 am 

    Those DeepRecess graphs use data from two different sources, the USGS and the EIA. The former is still very much aware and thinking about peak oil (and the limits of other reserves), the latter has been shown repeatedly to be optimistic to the point of detachment from reality.

  7. MASTERMIND on Thu, 23rd Aug 2018 4:12 pm 


    The easy oil is gone

    Oil discoveries peaked in the 1960’s.

    Every year since 1984 oil consumption has exceeded oil discovery.

    In 2017 oil discoveries were about 7 billion barrels; consumption was about 35 billion barrels

    Of the world’s 20 largest oil fields, 18 were discovered 1917-1968; 2 in the 1970’s; 0 since.

    HSBC Global Bank: 81% of world liquids production already in decline and world oil shortages ahead

    Projection of World Fossil Fuels by Country (Mohr, 2015)

    Oil, coal and gas are peaking soon..And big oil propaganda can’t change that you low iq conservative…

  8. MASTERMIND on Thu, 23rd Aug 2018 4:14 pm 

    Massive 474 page peak oil study done by the Australian Government..That was leaked online…They tried to suppress it because they were afraid of the panic it would cause..

    Australian Government (Leaked) Study: concludes world peak oil around 2017

    Oil shortages are on the way! Buckle your seat belts the ride is about to get rocky!

  9. duh on Thu, 23rd Aug 2018 4:16 pm 

    Global warming is good. Global cooling caused by less active sun is not good- you liberal nazi faggots.

  10. Antius on Thu, 23rd Aug 2018 4:37 pm 

    MM, here is a link to the report you mentioned. The other one doesn’t work.

    I would point out that it is nearly ten years old.

  11. Antius on Thu, 23rd Aug 2018 4:46 pm 

    “Australian Government (Leaked) Study: concludes world peak oil around 2017”

    The report makes no mention of tight oil production in the US and elsewhere. So its estimate of future peak liquids date is not reliable. Peak conventional oil happened some 13 years ago; which is 4 years before this report was written.

  12. MASTERMIND on Thu, 23rd Aug 2018 5:10 pm 


    Yes it does mention unconventional oil supplies..And unconventional supplies only make up around 5% of total world supplies..So its just a stop gap measure, not a game changer..And of course its ten years old because you don’t usually wait until the year before you peak to do a study about it..duh..

    Chevron CEO warns US shale oil alone cannot meet the world’s growing demand for crude

    The IEA is grossly overestimating shale growth

    Peak U.S. Shale Could Be 4 Years Away

  13. MASTERMIND on Thu, 23rd Aug 2018 5:16 pm 

    BITRE’s current forecast is closer to that of the German Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR 2004), which has production peaking slowly above 30 gigabarrels per year around 2020.

  14. peakyeast on Thu, 23rd Aug 2018 5:50 pm 

    The BITRE report on Canadian heavy oil is quite .. hmm strange..

    Figure 3.16
    Estimated annual production of Canadian heavy oi

    Or perhaps I am misunderstanding it… It rises to about 2mbd and then keeps straight for the next “100” years…?

  15. MASTERMIND on Thu, 23rd Aug 2018 6:26 pm 

    As The Wealthy Flock To The Major Cities On Both Coasts, Poverty And Suicide Soar In Rural Areas

    HAHA! Die whitey! Die Peckerwoods!

  16. Davy on Thu, 23rd Aug 2018 6:46 pm 

    While some of the story is true in the above referenced article much of it is exaggerations and generalizations. I live in the heart of the flyover. I know these people. It is not all horrible and descending into despair. Journalist love sensationalism. In fact there are pockets of great success and improvements around if you look. This author looked for the bad and he found it.

  17. onlooker on Thu, 23rd Aug 2018 6:59 pm 

    China is going crazy
    A proposal to tax adults who have fewer than two children has sparked a heated debate in China, after Beijing dropped its one-child policy in the hope of countering a looming demographic crisis—

  18. MASTERMIND on Thu, 23rd Aug 2018 7:03 pm 


    Give me a break the articles were based on studies..Two of which were from out own government and they tend to low ball everything, So chances are things are actually even worse than what they are saying..And claiming something is exaggerated without citing what, is meaningless..

    The capitalist are offshoring and automating everything, and most of it is in the rust belt and south..Since 2000 we have lost 60k factories in America..Even Harley Davidson is abandoning America..You don’t think that is going to have consequences? Not everyone lives in an inheritance bubble like you..

  19. MASTERMIND on Thu, 23rd Aug 2018 7:06 pm 


    WTF? China already created the worlds largest petri dish..And oil supplies are going to be running out soon..And they want more people? Pure insanity and denial..

  20. onlooker on Thu, 23rd Aug 2018 7:10 pm 

    MM, And people say just the US is crazy me thinks not

  21. Davy on Thu, 23rd Aug 2018 7:17 pm 

    “And claiming something is exaggerated without citing what, is meaningless..”

    I didn’t see you site anything, mm. You just puke a raw article and said see “whities die”. That sounds more meaningless to me.

  22. MASTERMIND on Thu, 23rd Aug 2018 7:33 pm 


    I don’t think your mind has the scoop to handle such a dark subject as collapse..Maybe this isn’t the place for you..You might do better at


  23. Davy on Thu, 23rd Aug 2018 8:01 pm 

    You are still not saying anything. Try referencing the article in question with something that shows you have a grasp of the finer points. Smart people here are not impressed with a sensationalized title then a vulgar “whities die” comment. You then talk wildly about collapse like that is the subject of the article. Who is in a Disney world? Scoop?

  24. MASTERMIND on Thu, 23rd Aug 2018 9:11 pm 


    You make no sense..I am not the one making baseless claims about the article..You are..

    I mean is it really that surprising that the dumbest, most uneducated and stupid region of America is doing the worst..And the most intelligent, educated and enlightened is doing the best?

  25. MASTERMIND on Thu, 23rd Aug 2018 9:17 pm 

    GOP lawmaker fears ‘civil war’ after Silent Sam toppled

  26. Cloggie on Fri, 24th Aug 2018 1:08 am 

    Can’t get stuff posted in this thread.

  27. Davy on Fri, 24th Aug 2018 5:07 am 

    Where is that region mm? I have been to your MI region and in the rural areas there are the people you look down upon. I have also been to the enlightened regions you talk about and they have the problems too. My point is the worst and best of America is everywhere. The so called “best” are dotted throughout the country where wealth and privilege concentrate.

    I am not sold on education either. I am seeing the worst of America come out of the most educated today. Enlightened, who is enlightened today? There is a small amount of people on this earth that are truly enlightened. Enlightenment is a state of understanding the “whys” of the decline of civilization in my opinion. The enlightened are changing attitudes and behavior to conform to this process. Wisdom is the benchmark of enlightened. We don’t have much wisdom today. We have a lots of intelligence good and bad. We also have a lot of poor behavior from the intelligent and stupid. Many people today are little more than savages across all strata. Wisdom is the ability to know what knowledge to employ. If we look at where wisdom occurs it is more dispersed yet. A significant amount of our worst behavior is concentrated among the wealthiest. The behavior that is killing the planet and increasing inequality is significantly where power is and where power has corrupted.

    If we look at wealth, educations, and privilege it is dispersed and generally pocketed in islands. There are regions where these islands are larger. Power and the privilege and wealth that goes with it gravitates the best but also the worst. Look at the DC area of the US and we see an Island of wealth, education, privilege and some of the worst corruption and bad behavior on the planet. These pockets per your definition of quality areas tend to be situated in urban and in suburban settings. These areas are generally the most complex. It is my opinion that these areas will see some of the greatest challenges from the decline process our civilization is in. Many of these regions you speak so highly of have poor demographic curves. They are aging and will have challenges maintaining themselves without an influx of younger blood that may not be up to the high standards you speak of. Currently in many of these rich areas the less privileged that are necessary for support of these wealthy complex areas are priced out of living arrangements.

    These areas of the best and brightest will face some of the greatest challenges. The regions you look on with disgust will too but these people are already being acclimated to having less and general suffering. Places that are already partially collapsed have already done some of the collapse process that will occur across the board. They are already there. It will likely get worse in these places so some are going to be dropped completely from any kind of safety net when and if a real existential crisis hits. The regions of wealth and privilege will likely hold on for a time in a crisis to the life blood of civilization because they have the power. At some point the complexity that supports the power will breakdown. Once a breakdown occurs in the complex areas the unravelling could be rapid and chaotic. If we look at geography and society in this view than we see it is quite different from a status quo view of wealth, intelligence, and education as enlightened and the best mankind has to offer. Just because an area is wealthy does not shield it from collapse in fact these areas may fall the furthest.

  28. Flavio Berthoud on Sat, 25th Aug 2018 8:24 pm 

    TOPIC: How to reduce Industrial Air Pollution.

    There are several equipments used to filter and retain PM – Particulate Material and/or Gases generated by industries that use iron ore, coal, oil, gas, waste and others feedstock in their industrial processes.

    With the combined use of 2 of the equipments mentioned below, now there is solution to eliminate much of this pollution.

    A) ESP: Electrostatic Precipitator.

    B) ESP-SS: Electrostatic Precipitator with Selective Switching.

    C) ACI: Activated Carbon Injection or DSI: Dry Sorbent Injection.

    D) ESP-SS/ACI/DSI: which is the combination of equipments B and C.

    E) Post-treatment equipment: Scrubber, Bag Filter, or other.

    The new technology SS, mentioned in item B) was developed inside the Federal University of ES – UFES in Vitória/Brasil, and is capable of retaining 60% of the Pollution that the current filters do not hold and released into atmosphere through the chimneys by thousands of industries worldwide.

    It is known that iron ore and/or fossil fuels and waste used as feedstock in base industry and/or thermoelectric power plants have many organic and metallic components in their structure, therefore:

    • They generate millions of tons of Particulate Material and Gases, not retained by industrial filters, and release them into the atmosphere.

    Even gas and oil, used by Thermoelectric, which release small amounts of ash, release large quantities of gases with many toxins, as well as mercury, arsenic, lead, radio isotopes, and others.

    • The big challenge is to capture these gaseous components.

    • Now, with ESP-SS/ACI/DSI this capture will be done, because the activated carbon ou sorbents to be injected into the ESP-SS/ACI/DSI will aggregate these gases in their surface area, allowing the capture and retention.

    • Injection of activated carbon and/or sorbents is already done in some Thermoelectric in the USA that use ESP without SS technology, and thus only manage to aggregate and retain small amounts of Gases.

    • Studies show that when granulation of the activated carbon ir sorbent currently used in the present ESP, of 19 μm in diameter, could be substituted for others with super fine diameter, a very large increase in the retention of these gases will occur.
    Currently activated carbon or sorbent of 19 μm is used because current ESP does not have technical capacity to retain PMs with smaller diameter.

    • The ESP-SS, already is the solution to capture 60% of all the particulate material currently emitted into the atmosphere, and when become a ESP-SS/ACI/DSI using activated carbon and / or sorbent of PM size 0.1 up to 1.0 μm, will capture a very large percentage of the gases.
    This is possible because ESP-SS has the technical capacity to retain all the PMs greater than PM 0.1 μm.

    • The ESP-SS/ACI/DSI, in the 2º step, that will be available in 3 years, when it is ready the new version of Relay LP 100 KV, fundamental piece of the Technology SS, produced in the UNITED STATES under license of TCS Ltda, will be able to retain over 95% of PMs and Gases today released into the atmosphere, and then the use of any post -treatment equipment, mentioned in item E), will no longer be necessary.

    • The TCS Company, owner of the World Patent of SS technology, is negotiating the sale of the aforementioned Patent to a Chinese Group, and hopes to start the manufacturing the first ESP-SS/ACI/DSI equipment still during 2018.

    * PS: This new technology, the Selective Switching – SS – is already being installed in a Brazilian company, in Vitoria / ES / Brazil.

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