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Why the world is running out of sand

Geology

Though separated by thousands of miles, these killings share an unlikely cause. They are some of the latest casualties in a growing wave of violence sparked by the struggle for one of the 21st Century’s most important, but least appreciated, commodities: ordinary sand.

Trivial though it may seem, sand is a critical ingredient of our lives. It is the primary raw material that modern cities are made from. The concrete used to construct shopping malls, offices, and apartment blocks, along with the asphalt we use to build roads connecting them, are largely just sand and gravel glued together. The glass in every window, windshield, and smart phone screen is made of melted-down sand. And even the silicon chips inside our phones and computers – along with virtually every other piece of electronic equipment in your home – are made from sand.

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And where is the problem with that, you might ask? Our planet is covered in it. Huge deserts from the Sahara to Arizona have billowing dunes of the stuff. Beaches on coastlines around the world are lined with sand. We can even buy bags of it at our local hardware shop for a fistful of small change.

But believe it or not, the world is facing a shortage of sand. How can we possibly be running low on a substance found in virtually every country on earth and that seems essentially limitless?

Creating the buildings and roads needed for the world’s growing urban population requires vast volumes of sand (Credit: Getty Images)

Sand, however, is the most-consumed natural resource on the planet besides water. People use some 50 billion tonnes of “aggregate” – the industry term for sand and gravel, which tend to be found together – every year. That’s more than enough to blanket the entire United Kingdom.

The problem lies in the type of sand we are using. Desert sand is largely useless to us. The overwhelming bulk of the sand we harvest goes to make concrete, and for that purpose, desert sand grains are the wrong shape. Eroded by wind rather than water, they are too smooth and rounded to lock together to form stable concrete.

We cannot extract 50 billion tonnes per year of any material without leading to massive impacts on the planet and thus on people’s lives – Pascal Peduzzi

The sand we need is the more angular stuff found in the beds, banks, and floodplains of rivers, as well as in lakes and on the seashore. The demand for that material is so intense that around the world, riverbeds and beaches are being stripped bare, and farmlands and forests torn up to get at the precious grains. And in a growing number of countries, criminal gangs have moved in to the trade, spawning an often lethal black market in sand.

“The issue of sand comes as a surprise to many, but it shouldn’t,” says Pascal Peduzzi, a researcher with the United Nations Environment Programme. “We cannot extract 50 billion tonnes per year of any material without leading to massive impacts on the planet and thus on people’s lives.”

The main driver of this crisis is breakneck urbanisation. Every year there are more and more people on the planet, with an ever growing number of them moving from the rural countryside into cities, especially in the developing world. Across Asia, Africa, and Latin America, cities are expanding at a pace and on a scale far greater than any time in human history.

The number of people living in urban areas has more than quadrupled since 1950 to some 4.2 billion today, and the United Nations predicts another 2.5 billion will join them in the next three decades. That’s the equivalent of adding eight cities the size of New York every single year.

Smoothed by the wind, sand in deserts like the Sahara, which cover huge swathes of the planet, do not lock together well in concrete (Credit: Alamy)

Creating buildings to house all those people, along with the roads to knit them together, requires prodigious quantities of sand. In India, the amount of construction sand used annually has more than tripled since 2000, and is still rising fast. China alone has likely used more sand this decade than the United States did in the entire 20th Century. There is so much demand for certain types of construction sand that Dubai, which sits on the edge of an enormous desert, imports sand from Australia. That’s right: exporters in Australia are literally selling sand to Arabs.

But sand isn’t only used for buildings and infrastructure – increasingly, it is also used to manufacture the very land beneath their feet. From California to Hong Kong, ever-larger and more powerful dredging ships vacuum up millions of tonnes of sand from the sea floor each year, piling  it up in coastal areas to create land where there was none before. Dubai’s palm-tree shaped islands are perhaps the most famous artificial land masses that have been built from scratch in recent years, but they have plenty of company.

Lagos, the largest city in Nigeria, is adding a 2,400-acre (9.7 sq km) urban extension to its Atlantic shoreline. China, the fourth-largest nation on Earth in terms of naturally occurring land, has added hundreds of miles to its coast, and built entire islands to host luxury resorts.

River sand mining is also contributing to the slow-motion disappearance of Vietnam’s Mekong Delta

This new real estate is valuable, but it often incurs steep costs. Ocean dredging has damaged coral reefs in Kenya, the Persian Gulf and Florida. It tears up marine habitat and muddies waters with sand plumes that can affect aquatic life far from the original site. Fishermen in Malaysia and Cambodia have seen their livelihoods decimated by dredging. In China, land reclamation has wiped out coastal wetlands, annihilated habitats for fish and shorebirds, and increased water pollution.

And then there’s Singapore, a world leader in land reclamation. To create more space for its nearly six million residents, the jam-packed city-state has built out its territory with an additional 50 sq miles (130 sq km) of land over the past 40 years, almost all of it with sand imported from other countries. The collateral environmental damage has been so extreme that neighbouring Indonesia, Malaysia, Vietnam, and Cambodia have all restricted exports of sand to Singapore.

All told, according to a Dutch research group, human beings since 1985 have added 5,237 sq miles (13,563 sq km) of artificial land to the world’s coasts – an area about as big as the nation of Jamaica. Most of it built with gargantuan amounts of sand.

Sand is extracted on an industrial scale from rivers, lakes and beaches around the world to meet the global demand (Credit: Getty Images)

Mining sand to use in concrete and other industrial purposes is, if anything, even more destructive. Sand for construction is most often mined from rivers. It’s easy to pull the grains up with suction pumps or even buckets, and easy to transport once you’ve got a full boatload. But dredging a riverbed can destroy the habitat occupied by bottom-dwelling organisms. The churned-up sediment can cloud the water, suffocating fish and blocking the sunlight that sustains underwater vegetation.

River sand mining is also contributing to the slow-motion disappearance of Vietnam’s Mekong Delta. The area is home to 20 million people and source of half of all the country’s food and much of the rice that feeds the rest of South East Asia. Climate-change-induced sea level rise is one reason the delta is losing the equivalent of one and a half football fields of land every day. But another, researchers believe, is that people are robbing the delta of its sand.

For centuries, the delta has been replenished by sediment carried down from the mountains of Central Asia by the Mekong River. But in recent years, in each of the several countries along its course, miners have begun pulling huge quantities of sand from the riverbed. According to a 2013 study by three French researchers, some 50 million tonnes of sand were extracted in 2011 alone – enough to cover the city of Denver two inches deep. Meanwhile, five major dams have been built in recent years on the Mekong and another 12 are slated for construction in China, Laos, and Cambodia. The dams further diminish the flow of sediment to the delta.

In other words, while natural erosion of the delta continues, its natural replenishment does not. Researchers with the Greater Mekong Programme at the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) believe that at this rate, nearly half the delta will be wiped out by the end of this century.

Extracting sand from quarries along river banks in places like Sri Lanka is back-breaking work (Credit: Getty Images)

To make matters worse, dredging the Mekong and other waterways in Cambodia and Laos is causing river banks to collapse, dragging down crop fields and even houses. Farmers in Myanmar say the same thing is happening along the Ayeyarwady River.

Sand extraction from rivers has also caused untold millions of dollars in damage to infrastructure around the world. The stirred-up sediment clogs water supply equipment. And removing all that material from river banks leaves the foundations of bridges exposed and unsupported. In Ghana, sand miners have dug up so much ground that they have dangerously exposed the foundations of hillside buildings, which are at risk of collapse. That’s not just a theoretical risk. Sand mining caused a bridge to collapse in Taiwan in 2000, and another the following year in Portugal just as a bus was passing over it, killing 70 people.

The competition for sand has grown so intense that in many places criminal gangs have gotten into the trade

Demand for high-purity silica sands, which are used to make glass as well as high-tech products like solar panels and computer chips, is also soaring. America’s surging fracking industry also needs the extra-durable high-purity grains. The result: acres of farmlands and forests in rural Wisconsin, which happens to have a lot of those precious sands, are being torn up.

The competition for sand has grown so intense that in many places criminal gangs have gotten into the trade, digging grains up by the megatonne to sell on the black market. In parts of Latin America and Africa, according to human rights groups, children are forced to work as virtual slaves in sand mines. The gangs get away with all this the same way organised crime does everywhere – by paying off corrupt police and government officials to leave them alone. And, when they deem it necessary, by assaulting and even killing those who get in their way.

Criminal gangs have found that illegally extracting sand from beaches or quarries and selling it on the black market is a lucrative business (Credit: Getty Images)

José Luis Álvarez Flores, an environmental activist in the southern Mexican state of Chiapas who campaigned against illegal sand mining in a local river, was shot dead in June. A note threatening his family and other activists was reportedly found with his body. Two months later, police in Rajasthan, India, were shot at when they tried to stop a convoy of tractors carrying illegally mined sand. The ensuing gun battle left two miners dead and two police officers hospitalised. And early this year, a sand miner in South Africa was shot seven times in a dispute with another group of miners.

Those are only the latest casualties. Violence over the sand trade in recent years has taken lives in Kenya, Gambia, and Indonesia. In India, “sand mafias”, as the local press calls them, have injured hundreds and killed dozens of people. The victims include an 81-year-old teacher and a 22-year-old activist who were separately hacked to death, a journalist burned to death, and at least three police officers run over by sand trucks.

Awareness of the damage caused by our addiction to sand is growing. A number of scientists are working on ways to replace sand in concrete with other materials, including fly ash, the material left over by coal-fired power stations; shredded plastic; and even crushed oil palm shells and rice husks. Others are developing concrete that requires less sand, while researchers are also looking at more effective ways to grind down and recycle concrete.

In many Western countries, river sand mining has already been largely phased out. Getting the rest of the world to follow suit will be tough, though. “Preventing or reducing likely damage to rivers will require the construction industry to be weaned off river sourced aggregate,” says a recent report on the global sand industry by WWF. “This type of societal shift is similar to that required to address climate change, and will necessitate changes in the way that sand and river are perceived, and cities are designed and constructed.”

Sand-covered beaches are often depicted as paradise, but in some parts of the world they are being dug up and sold by the tonne (Credit: Alamy)

Mette Bendixen, a coastal geographer at the University of Colorado, is one of a growing number of academics calling for the United Nations and the World Trade Organization, to do more to limit the damage caused by sand mining. “We should have a monitoring programme,” says Bendixen. “More management is needed because right now it’s not being managed at all.”

At present, no one even knows exactly how much sand is being pulled out of the earth, nor where, nor under what conditions. Much of it is undocumented. “We just know,” says Bendixen, “that the more people there are, the more sand we need.”

BBC



77 Comments on "Why the world is running out of sand"

  1. Sissyfuss on Wed, 20th Nov 2019 9:15 pm 

    None of this was a problem at a population of 1 or 2 billion. What will it be like at 11 billion? No one would to know that.

  2. Duncan Idaho on Wed, 20th Nov 2019 9:28 pm 

    11 billion?
    No going to happen, (energy assures that)
    I would say 400 million maybe.
    Possibly none (the obvious bet)

  3. Cloggie on Wed, 20th Nov 2019 9:40 pm 

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Concrete_recycling

  4. makati1 on Wed, 20th Nov 2019 11:34 pm 

    We have about hit peak population. Nature is going to prevent much more increase in the human population. Already, life expectancy is going down in many Western countries. Drugs, disease, suicides, the new gender-bender life styles where fewer and fewer will or can reproduce, will slow the increase.

    Current world population is estimated to be about 7,750,000,000 humans. I doubt we will exceed 8 billion by much and never reach 9 billion.

  5. Dooma on Thu, 21st Nov 2019 12:47 am 

    There are quite a few souls who rely on the Mekong Delta for their daily intake of carbohydrates. Once we ruin that, it is going to cause a tonne of grief.

    We indeed are a stupid, greedy blight on this natural world. Just like fleas on a dog – we need to be substantially reduced.

  6. Richard Guenette on Thu, 21st Nov 2019 7:33 am 

    Haven’t we messed up the environment enough? What happens when “economic growth” on a finite world isn’t enough?

  7. claes on Thu, 21st Nov 2019 10:56 am 

    Mak, we do agree about this:
    “We have about hit peak population. Nature is going to prevent much more increase in the human population. Already, life expectancy is going down in many Western countries. Drugs, disease, suicides, the new gender-bender life styles where fewer and fewer will or can reproduce, will slow the iwhat about india , indonesia, Africa and some more, that do not decrease their numbers?
    I think you are a little optimistic about how small the future world population will be. Africa has an uncontrolled growth in population,and so has Indonesia and India. Just saying

  8. claes on Thu, 21st Nov 2019 12:02 pm 

    I’m following the impeachment process live and I’m impressed.
    This inquery into the powers of the US elites, shows the supperiority of the western legal system at it’s best.
    When will Xi Jinping, Putin and Erdogan stand trial. Probably never, and it’s not our business.
    This trial is about western values, that the rest of the world doesn’t seem to understand.
    Even if this trial initialy will polarise the US even more, in the end it will strengthen the overall feeling that authorities can be questioned, and that the rule of law is mandatory .

  9. dave thompson on Thu, 21st Nov 2019 12:42 pm 

    Anything and everything humans do at scale in our most “efficient” corporate capitalistic, low taxes, low/no regulation, ever expanding economic growth paradigm, can only lead to the most wonderful paradise of a planet earth suitable for only supporting arsenic breathing microbes. https://newatlas.com/nasa-discovers-new-bacteria/17147/

  10. Richard Guenette on Thu, 21st Nov 2019 12:55 pm 

    The whole US government is corrupt and rotten to the core. Impeach them all (I don’t care what party they belong to). Why waste money on a televised impeachment when we have the judges to hold those accountable for treason, war crimes, fraud etc.? NOBODY is above the law.

  11. Richard Guenette on Thu, 21st Nov 2019 12:58 pm 

    Also, there should be a Great Purge of all types of corrupt politicians (neocons, CIA torturers, rogue beuarocrats). Send all crooked politicians to jail for bribery as well.

  12. Richard Guenette on Thu, 21st Nov 2019 1:00 pm 

    America should transition from fascist police state to social democracy. All offshore accounts should be outlawed (as well as usury) and the money should go to repairing and upgrading infrastructure, build safe affordable housing units, more schools and less prisons.

  13. Stupid’s sock on Thu, 21st Nov 2019 1:07 pm 

    This is the uneducated mentally ill South American living in the den of ecological sin, Miami Beach.

    JuanP sock
    Richard Guenette said America should transition from fascist police stat…

    Richard Guenette said Also, there should be a Great Purge of all types o…

    Richard Guenette said The whole US government is corrupt and rotten to t…

    Richard Guenette said Canada is no different than America. The governmen…

  14. claes on Thu, 21st Nov 2019 1:35 pm 

    You socialist guys really don’t like that the highest authority of a country can be legally impeached.
    You are fascist in the worst meaning of the word.
    Impeach Stalin, Mao, PolPot, etc. .. But,no, only western leaders should be impeached.
    My main question to all totalitarians: Is the law above even the government.. if not WHY??

  15. Richard Guenette on Thu, 21st Nov 2019 1:39 pm 

    Claes, NO ONE is above the law, not even international law.

  16. Richard Guenette on Thu, 21st Nov 2019 1:45 pm 

    Claes, have you ever been to former communist/socialist nations and spoke to the local population to learn THEIR side of the story?nothing is black and white- it’s grey.

  17. Richard Guenette on Thu, 21st Nov 2019 1:50 pm 

    Nothing is black-and-white- it’s all grey.

  18. Richard Guenette on Thu, 21st Nov 2019 1:59 pm 

    “Western values” is hypocritical when the government on all levels talks about it. It hides the ugly reality of suffering in Western nations (Canada, US, UK, France etc.). We should stop sending money overseas (Most charities are scams and benefit those who receive the “donations”) and use the money to help out the homeless, mentally ill, disabled, people with complex medical needs, senior citizens etc.

  19. claes on Thu, 21st Nov 2019 2:01 pm 

    I think the american left has been lured into this impeachement by selfish Hillaries.
    The american left has been nutered by it’s tight relation with the Democratic party. They can’t talk reforms but have to focus on king carrot impeachment. What they really want to talk about is a no go.
    America is ripe for a multi-party system (instead of a two party system)

  20. Richard Guenette on Thu, 21st Nov 2019 2:05 pm 

    America would benefit from a multiparty system where voters of all political views can have their voices heard. No more left-right system.

  21. Stupid’s socks on Thu, 21st Nov 2019 2:07 pm 

    JuanP sock insanity

    Richard Guenette said “Western values” is hypocritical when…

    Richard Guenette said Nothing is black-and-white- it’s all grey.
    Richard Guenette said Benjamin Netanyahu is a fake Jewish person (no blo…
    Richard Guenette said Claes, have you ever been to former communist/soci…

    Richard Guenette said Sue and prosecute the Evangelical leaders (the so-…

    Richard Guenette said Claes, NO ONE is above the law, not even internati…

    Robert Inget said BOTH Trump and Netanyahu have serious legal ̵…

    Richard Guenette said Juan/Davy, look in the mirror (It is YOU who lies…

    Ban fuckface

  22. Richard Guenette on Thu, 21st Nov 2019 2:09 pm 

    Note to DDD (Delusional dummy Davy): your words don’t move me, not even hurt me.

  23. claes on Thu, 21st Nov 2019 2:30 pm 

    Disregarding the ID-thieves.
    Richard I think US would benefit from a multi-party-system.
    But it wouldn’t take away the left/right, it would just give folks a way to vote on their particular idea of how america should be run.

  24. Richard Guenette on Thu, 21st Nov 2019 2:35 pm 

    We need to go back to the basics and use what we need to survive (Accept what we are given).

  25. JuanP on Thu, 21st Nov 2019 2:37 pm 

    Richard go play with your hamster you pervert.

  26. More stupid ID theft on Thu, 21st Nov 2019 2:40 pm 

    Obviously JuanP

    claes said Disregarding the ID-thieves. Richard I think US w…

  27. Spremist Muzzie Jerk on Thu, 21st Nov 2019 2:43 pm 

    Supertards, Juan the Muzzie lover sucks cock

  28. Richard Guenette on Thu, 21st Nov 2019 2:44 pm 

    Davy/Juan, you are an arsehole.

  29. Richard Guenette on Thu, 21st Nov 2019 2:48 pm 

    Americans would benefit from universal health care (for all Americans and have a balanced and fair doctor-patient partnership). The current health care system caused a lot of Americans to go bankrupt. If UHC is bad, why are some Americans travelling to Canada to receive better health care?

  30. claes on Thu, 21st Nov 2019 2:54 pm 

    ID thieves are really missing this great moment when the american goverment is questioned under oath.
    No other government in the world history has ever been questioned like that.
    Somehow this trial is will make America great again.
    What is happening on live TV is comparable to TV-news reporting from Vietnam.

  31. claes on Thu, 21st Nov 2019 3:04 pm 

    Richard, America would be talking about health care if it wasn’t for the revengefull Hillaries focusing on impeachment.

  32. JuanP on Thu, 21st Nov 2019 3:09 pm 

    Claes, meet for a humper pumper at #9. Richard, you bring the hamster. I love it

  33. Stupid is out of control on Thu, 21st Nov 2019 3:11 pm 

    Mindless JuanP shit. Ban the fuckface

    JuanP said Claes, meet for a humper pumper at #9. Richard, y…

    claes said Richard, America would be talking about health car…

    claes said ID thieves are really missing this great moment wh…

    Richard Guenette said Americans would benefit from universal health care…

    Richard Guenette said Davy/Juan, you are an arsehole.

    Spremist Muzzie Jerk said Supertards, Juan the Muzzie lover sucks cock

    More stupid ID theft said Obviously JuanP

    claes said Disregarding the ID-th…

    JuanP said Richard go play with your hamster you pervert.

    Richard Guenette said We need to go back to the basics and use what we n…

    claes said Disregarding the ID-thieves. Richard I think US w…

    Richard Guenette said Note to DDD (Delusional dummy Davy): your words do…

    Richard Guenette said Lower the cost of living and increase minimum wage…

  34. JuanP on Thu, 21st Nov 2019 3:13 pm 

    “Giuliani Explains “Massive Pay-For-Play” Soros-Ukraine Scheme Facilitated By US Diplomats”
    https://www.zerohedge.com/political/giuliani-explains-massive-pay-play-soros-ukraine-scheme-facilitated-us-diplomats

    “Rudy Giuliani claims that US diplomats have been acting to further the interests of billionaire George Soros in Ukraine in what he described as a “massive pay-for-play” scheme which included falsifying evidence against President Trump. “The anti-corruption bureau is a contradiction,” Giuliani told Glenn Beck, regarding Ukraine’s National Anti-Corruption Bureau (NABU), which Joe Biden helped establish when he was the Obama administration’s point-man on Ukraine. As a bit of background, in December of 2018, a Ukrainian court ruled that NABU director Artem Sytnyk “acted illegally” when he revealed the existence of Trump campaign manager Paul Manafort’s name to Journalist and politician Serhiy Leschenko in a “black ledger” containing off-book payments to Manafort by Ukraine’s previous administration. The ruling against Sytnyk and Leshchenko was later overturned on a technicality. In December, The Blaze obtained audio of Sytnyk bragging about helping Hillary Clinton in the 2016 US election. “They took all the corruption cases away from the prosecutor general, they gave it to the anti-corruption bureau, and they got rid of all the cases that offended Soros, and they included all the cases against Soros’ enemies,” Giuliani told Beck. The Soros connection” “One of the first cases they dismissed was a case in which his [Soros’s] NGO, AntAC, was supposed to have embezzled a lot of money, but not only that, collected dirty information on Republicans to be transmitted, gotten by Ukrainians, to be transmitted to this woman Alexandra Chalupa and other people who worked for the Democratic National Committee,” Giuliani continued. “The first case that [former prosecutor Yuri] Lutsenko tanked was that case at the request of the ambassador,” he added. Elsewhere in the interview, Giuliani described his reaction when he discovered the Ukrainian collusion that undermined the accusations of the Democrats made against the president. “Hallelujah! I now have what a defense lawyer always wants: I can go prove somebody else committed this crime!” Giuliani said. Giuliani explained to Beck that he had gone to Ukraine seeking exculpatory evidence, that which would exonerate his client, the president, in the special counsel Robert Mueller investigation. When Giuliani was asked directly about the identity of the whistleblower, he said that he could not speak about the matter publicly, and could not indicate if he knew the identity or not. He also claimed that there were several prosecutors in Ukraine currently who were willing to testify about the collusion, but they were being blocked by the U.S. State Department. When prompted by Beck, he said he would provide for him the names of those individuals off air. “The case is a massive pay-for-play multimillion-dollar scheme, and it is an absolute travesty of justice,” Giuliani said. -The Blaze Last month Senate Judiciary Committee Chairman Lindsey Graham (R-SC) has invited Trump attorney Rudy Giuliani to explain allegations of rampant corruption against former Vice President Joe Biden and his son Hunter in Ukraine. The former New York Mayor has yet to accept.”

  35. claes on Thu, 21st Nov 2019 3:23 pm 

    Adam schiff just destroid all democratic credibility by taking all final speaking time for him self, with out giving the oponents any time to defend themselves.

  36. Richard Guenette on Thu, 21st Nov 2019 3:39 pm 

    JuanP should check into Douglas Gardens Mental Health Clinic

  37. JuanP on Thu, 21st Nov 2019 3:41 pm 

    Rik, I am an outpatient as we speak

  38. claes on Thu, 21st Nov 2019 4:05 pm 

    JuanP, If you ever meet a patient called john greer, please tell him to keep his text short and clear, just like your self

  39. claes on Thu, 21st Nov 2019 4:18 pm 

    Juan p, sorry bout the last comment. It was totally unfair. Keep up the good work.

  40. Davy on Thu, 21st Nov 2019 4:47 pm 

    Weeee! This is so much fun I’m squealing like a widdle catholic school girl.

  41. makati1 on Thu, 21st Nov 2019 4:54 pm 

    claes, regarding population, I say it will never reach 9 billion, even with the African increases, because mother nature is bringing out her big guns and will keep population under control. How?

    1. Erratic weather decimating crops.
    2. Spreading food virus’-African Swine Fever
    3. New diseases like Ebola
    4. Antibiotic resistant bacterial diseases
    5. Returning plagues, as is currently happening.
    6. Increasing poverty.
    7. ???

    Africa may gain at the cost of Europe and America where life expectancy is falling. Be careful what stats you believe in. Most are fake today.

  42. claes on Thu, 21st Nov 2019 4:55 pm 

    It’s not often I make people happy, but when I do…. catch the moment

  43. makati1 on Thu, 21st Nov 2019 4:57 pm 

    BTW: No political party in the US has had credibility for a long time. Decades, if it ever had any. Nothing new there.

    I don’t even pay attention to the political sideshows going on in Police State Amerika. All distractions for the serfs.

  44. Davy on Thu, 21st Nov 2019 5:11 pm 

    Thanks claes. I haven’t had this much fun since the last time my goat farted. I laughed for weaks. It was real funny.

  45. claes on Thu, 21st Nov 2019 5:22 pm 

    Mak, Maybe the populations could have been exposed to some kind of chemical agent that makes them gender-confused ? At least it seems so.
    In our parts of the world the sperm quality in young men is deteriorating.
    That would explain some of the declining populations in the west. This effect though could be global in the long run.
    Make your self proud of being the last of the best of the whiteys.

  46. claes on Thu, 21st Nov 2019 5:38 pm 

    mak, this live impeachment is different. Maybe is it not that easy to dig into if you haven’t seen the first episodes.
    Perry Mason is an amateur compared to these lawyers, although the girls are prettier in the Mason series. You should see it though.

  47. makati1 on Thu, 21st Nov 2019 5:40 pm 

    claes, you have a clear understanding of current events in that area. Between chemicals in everything we eat, drink or breathe, and the many pollutions lowering our heath in other ways, we are dying from modernity.

    How many antibiotics, growth hormones, chemicals, etc, do we feed our food sources to make them bigger, faster? Answer: many! How have they changed our genes and affected our sexuality? Who knows! We are going down a dark street without protection as we wander into the future.

    Yes, my generation is likely the best we will ever be. I grew up before most of the above meddling began and was smart enough to avoid drugs, tobacco and alcohol for the most part. I am enjoying a great retirement at 75 and hope for a lot more years to watch events unfold. I wish the same for you.

  48. makati1 on Thu, 21st Nov 2019 5:43 pm 

    As for the political circus in the US, I have little time for it. It is all “he said”/”she said” unsubstantiated bullshit. No matter who “wins” Amerika loses. The whole world is watching the sideshow and laughing as the US goes down. Myself included.

  49. claes on Thu, 21st Nov 2019 5:57 pm 

    I’m not entirely sure that this show is bullshit. What we are watching is two power full groups in US strugling for the ultimate power in the real world. It looks like a sitcom , but it’s hard reality about the worlds future. They are both strict capitalists, but the one is communistic, the other is feodal. Pick your choice.

  50. makati1 on Thu, 21st Nov 2019 6:07 pm 

    claes, the real power is not elected in the US. The puppets on display have no real say in anything important in Amerika. Trump has been an exception to the rule and has his own method of running the show that TPTB don’t particularly like. He is destroying Amerika so fast, they cannot prevent it short of another John F. Kennedy event, which would bring out the guns into the streets.

    The US is already socialist in most areas and the capitalist system is dying along with the West. The only thing the US is really #1 at is brainwashing propaganda, but the world is waking up and seeing behind the curtain.

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