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The Sudden Death of Peak Oil – 4.5 Trillion Barrels of Oil Left

The Sudden Death of Peak Oil – 4.5 Trillion Barrels of Oil Left thumbnail

Google trends – nobody is interested anymore in the topic of “peak oil”

Technology is not just expanding our daily oil production; it also continues to increase the amount of oil and liquid fuels we can count on for the future.

In 1981, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated that remaining global recoverable crude and condensate resources were 1 trillion barrels; today, the IEA estimates that it is 4.5 trillion barrels – enough to meet global oil demand beyond the 21st century. By 2040, the amount of resources yet to be produced will still be far higher than total production prior to 2040, even with a 20 percent rise in global oil demand.

[reason.com] – U.S. Oil Reserves Bigger Than Saudi Arabia’s

Note that the IEA doesn’t state at what price levels these 4.5 trillion barrel can be recovered. Regardless, there is enough oil left to set up a renewable energy base. The challenge is not to find new oil, the challenge is not to use it.

deep resources



40 Comments on "The Sudden Death of Peak Oil – 4.5 Trillion Barrels of Oil Left"

  1. George Straight on Mon, 20th Aug 2018 9:10 am 

    Yippie, that is GOOD headlines…time to shut down this rag blog with the constant bickering between Davy, Cloggie, Juan, Sissypuss, ROCKMAN, Rocdoc, Marimco,
    and too numerous to mention other morons, that think they are right.

  2. Davy on Mon, 20th Aug 2018 9:31 am 

    George/shortens, are you maybe off your meds? You are changing your name daily with the same avatar. Why not say something instead of whining?

  3. JuanP on Mon, 20th Aug 2018 9:38 am 

    George has the right to express his opinions just like you do, Exceptionalist. You just can’t stop making friends, can you? You are such a fucking sensitive bitch. You’ve never met this guy; why do you get upset because he calls us morons? You have a very fragile ego! LOL!

  4. Davy on Mon, 20th Aug 2018 9:47 am 

    Look in the mirror Juan. Wow, you know you have met a dumbass when you read the above. “Zoom” right over the peon’s intellectual level. Still waiting on a comment out of the Greggie Juan troll duet.

  5. MASTERMIND on Mon, 20th Aug 2018 10:00 am 

    Is The World Sleepwalking Into The Next Oil Crisis

    https://www.forbes.com/sites/rrapier/2018/03/23/is-the-world-sleepwalking-into-an-oil-crisis/#509edc8b44cf

  6. MASTERMIND on Mon, 20th Aug 2018 10:02 am 

    Oil discoveries in 2017 hit all-time low –Houston Chronicle
    https://www.chron.com/business/energy/article/Oil-discoveries-in-2017-hit-all-time-low-12447212.php

    IEA Chief warns of world oil shortages by 2020 as discoveries fall to record lows
    https://www.wsj.com/articles/iea-says-global-oil-discoveries-at-record-low-in-2016-1493244000

    Saudi Arabia’s Energy Minister Warns of World Oil Shortages Ahead
    https://www.wsj.com/articles/saudi-minister-sees-end-of-oil-price-slump-1476870790

    Saudi Aramco chief warns of looming oil shortage
    https://www.ft.com/content/ed1e8102-212f-11e7-b7d3-163f5a7f229c

    Halliburton CEO says oil will spike due to oil shortages by 2020 after Industry Cuts
    https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2017-07-12/halliburton-sees-2020-oil-spike-after-industry-cuts-2-trillion

    HSBC Global Bank: 81% of world liquids production already in decline and world oil shortages ahead
    https://www.scribd.com/document/367688629/HSBC-Peak-Oil-Report-2017

    UBS Global Bank warns of industry slowdown and world Oil Shortages by 2020
    http://www.telegraph.co.uk/finance/newsbysector/energy/oilandgas/12136886/Oil-slowdown-to-trigger-supply-crisis-by-2020-warns-bank.html

  7. MASTERMIND on Mon, 20th Aug 2018 10:17 am 

    2020s To Be A Decade of Disorder For Oil
    https://oilprice.com/Energy/Energy-General/2020s-To-Be-A-Decade-of-Disorder-For-Oil.html

    All That New Shale Oil May Not Be Enough as Big Discoveries Drop
    https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2017-12-27/all-that-new-shale-oil-may-not-be-enough-as-big-discoveries-drop

    Wood Mackenzie warns of oil supply crunch and world oil shortages around 2020
    https://oilprice.com/Energy/Crude-Oil/The-Next-Oil-Price-Spike-May-Cripple-The-Industry.html

    People are almost completely ignoring a looming crisis for oil
    http://www.businessinsider.com/the-future-of-oil-supply-and-demand-2016-9

  8. MASTERMIND on Mon, 20th Aug 2018 10:19 am 

    Peak oil is not a myth -The Royal Society of Chemistry
    https://www.chemistryworld.com/opinion/peak-oil-is-not-a-myth/7102.article

    The future of oil supply –The Royal Society of Science http://rsta.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/372/2006/20130179.short

    Has Petroleum Production Peaked, Ending the Era of Easy Oil?https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/has-peak-oil-already-happened/

    Peak Oil may keep Climate Change in Check
    https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/peak-oil-may-keep-catastrophic-climate-change-in-check/

    A Regional Oil Extraction and Consumption Model. (Dittmar 2017)
    https://arxiv.org/pdf/1708.03150.pdf

    HSBC Global Bank: 81% of world liquids production already in decline and world oil shortages ahead
    https://www.scribd.com/document/367688629/HSBC-Peak-Oil-Report-2017

    A global energy assessment (Jefferson 2015)
    https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1002/wene.179

    Projection of World Fossil Fuels by Country (Mohr, 2015)
    https://www.scribd.com/document/375110317/Projection-of-World-Fossil-Fuels-by-Country-Mohr-2015

    Economic Vulnerability to Peak Oil (Kerschner 2013)
    https://www.scribd.com/document/375485924/Economic-Vulnerability-to-Peak-Oil-Kerschner-et-Al-2013

    Forecasting OPEC crude oil production using a variant Multicyclic Hubbert Model (Ebrahimi 2015)
    https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0920410515001539

    Aging giant oil fields produce more than half of global oil supply and are declining (Hook, 2009)
    http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301421509001281

    The End of Peak Oil? Why this topic is still relevant despite recent denials (Chapman, 2014)
    https://www.scribd.com/document/375110698/The-end-of-Peak-Oil-Why-this-topic-is-still-relevant-despite-recent-denials-Chapman-2014

  9. MASTERMIND on Mon, 20th Aug 2018 10:19 am 

    USA DOE Study: Peaking of World Oil Production (Hirsch, 2005)
    https://www.netl.doe.gov/publications/others/pdf/Oil_Peaking_NETL.pdf

    USA GAO Study: Uncertainty about Future Oil Supply. Addressing a Peak and Decline in Oil Production
    http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d07283.pdf

    Australian Government (Leaked) Study: concludes world peak oil around 2020
    https://web.archive.org/web/20170415190328/https://www.aspo-australia.org.au/References/Bruce/BITRE-Report-117-Oil_supply_trends-2009.pdf

    German Military (leaked) Peak Oil study: oil is used in the production of 95% of all industrial goods, so a shortage of oil would collapse the world economy & world governments
    http://www.energybulletin.net/sites/default/files/Peak%20Oil_Study%20EN.pdf

    China Government Study: China’s Oil Production is About to Peak in 2018 & Coal in 2020 (Wang, 2017)
    https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12182-017-0187-9

    Edinburgh Study: Only 10 years of UK’S North Sea Oil and Gas Remaining (Thompson, 2017)
    https://www.ed.ac.uk/news/2017/uk-oil-and-gas-reserves-may-last-only-a-decade

  10. rockman on Mon, 20th Aug 2018 11:23 am 

    George – The Rockman does not “bicker”. He states documented FACTS. So yes: they are always correct given that they are FACTS.

    Why you seldom see rebuttals to the Rockman’s posts. LOL.

  11. rockman on Mon, 20th Aug 2018 11:27 am 

    BTW: I didn’t notice anyone point out the obvious FACT: PO is not about reserves. It’s about the global oil production rate.

    Just the same amateur mistake once again repeated.

  12. Uncle Bill on Mon, 20th Aug 2018 11:34 am 

    ROCKMAN doesn’t bicker!?
    Sure….in your little world of make believe
    I suppose….

  13. JuanP on Mon, 20th Aug 2018 11:59 am 

    Delusional Davy “Look in the mirror Juan. Wow, you know you have met a dumbass when you read the above. “Zoom” right over the peon’s intellectual level.”

    More kindergarden bullying from the board’s biggest troll.

  14. Cloggie on Mon, 20th Aug 2018 12:42 pm 

    BTW: I didn’t notice anyone point out the obvious FACT: PO is not about reserves. It’s about the global oil production rate.

    Just the same amateur mistake once again repeated.

    Let me come to the rescue of the author (who happens to be me btw.lol)… the Rockman is not entirely right of course about PO = production rate, PO is a DATE of maximum oil production rate.

    But nitpicking aside, he has to admit that the date of PO and the size of reserves are very strongly correlated. If the likes of Exxon and IEA state that the maximum number of recoverable barrels of oil are in the range of 4.5 trillion (where humanity consumed 1 trillion so far throughout history), it is obvious that the vision as promoted by Heinberg and ASPO-2000, namely that peak oil supply was immanent, can be put ad acta.

    And yes, the Rockman is the most civilized and informed person on this board.

    Can I have a round of applause please (for the Rockman).

    P.S. having said that, he should be more economical with using the word “amateur”.

  15. MASTERMIND on Mon, 20th Aug 2018 12:52 pm 

    Clogg

    The IEA doesn’t state that

    Here is the IEA back in 2009 interview.

    Warning: Oil supplies are running out fast

    “In an interview with The Independent, Dr Birol said that the public and many governments appeared to be oblivious to the fact that the oil on which modern civilisation depends is running out far faster than previously predicted and that global production is likely to peak in about 10 years – at least a decade earlier than most governments had estimated.”

    https://www.independent.co.uk/news/science/warning-oil-supplies-are-running-out-fast-1766585.html

    And here is the IEA currently..The same story as back in 2009..

    IEA Chief warns of world oil shortages by 2020 as discoveries fall to record lows
    https://www.wsj.com/articles/iea-says-global-oil-discoveries-at-record-low-in-2016-1493244000

    IEA warns of oil ‘supply crunch’ by 2020 with no capex renaissance
    https://www.reuters.com/article/us-oil-iea-forecast/iea-warns-of-oil-supply-crunch-by-2020-with-no-capex-renaissance-idUSKBN16D1X1

    IEA Forecasts Oil Shortages and Sharp Price Rise by 2020 – Nasdaq https://www.nasdaq.com/article/iea-forecasts-oil-shortages-and-sharp-price-rise-by-2020-cm757712

    International Energy Agency: Oil price spike coming in 2020
    https://www.usatoday.com/story/money/2017/09/19/iea-oil-price-spike-coming-2020/679584001/

    Exxon and BP are peak oil deniers because they don’t want to scare their investors away.

  16. MASTERMIND on Mon, 20th Aug 2018 12:56 pm 

    CLogg

    Oil has already gone scare since 2006 when conventional oil peaked..That is why the price is over 3 times what it was in the entire 20th century ie supply and demand..You obviously never went to college and studied econ 101..

    Too busy watching propaganda videos from amateurs on youtube..

    LMFAO!

  17. MASTERMIND on Mon, 20th Aug 2018 1:00 pm 

    Global debt at 240 trillion dollars > global oil shortage and price spike > Global economic collapse > Global societal collapse

    People are almost completely ignoring a looming crisis for oil
    http://www.businessinsider.com/the-future-of-oil-supply-and-demand-2016-9

    Imminent peak oil could burst US, global economic bubble – study
    https://www.theguardian.com/environment/earth-insight/2013/nov/19/peak-oil-economicgrowth

  18. MASTERMIND on Mon, 20th Aug 2018 1:40 pm 

    Clogg

    I got another civil war article to add to your list

    Scholar Warns We Could Be Headed for a ‘Violent Conflict’ Between Republicans and Democrats

    https://www.alternet.org/scholar-warns-we-could-be-headed-violent-conflict-between-republicans-and-democrats?src=newsletter1095409

  19. Sissyfuss on Mon, 20th Aug 2018 1:53 pm 

    So Rockamondo, how many of the 4.5 barrels are economically retrievable and how much am I going to be paying for gas in 2022? And is that 87 octane?

  20. MASTERMIND on Mon, 20th Aug 2018 2:09 pm 

    Sissy

    Why do you ask someone who isn’t an expert? If Rockman really was he would cite sources? And if he does work in the industry that means he has a conflict of interest..

  21. Sissyfuss on Mon, 20th Aug 2018 2:10 pm 

    And Monbiot was correct in stating that there’s enough to fry us all.

  22. Sissyfuss on Mon, 20th Aug 2018 4:06 pm 

    Stifle, Millipede. Ain’t no more expert than the Roc and the last two questions were for entertainment purposes only and not to be used in a court of law. Go Green.

  23. makati1 on Mon, 20th Aug 2018 6:26 pm 

    Another piece of shit article about “possibilities”.

    If gravity stopped, cows could fly.

    If financial councilors are so smart, why aren’t they billionaires and living the “good life” instead of trolling for dollars?

    If this forum was monitored, would we have assholes like Davy, MM, etc. to contend with daily for years?

    If the moon was made of green cheese, would Craft Foods own it?

    ‘IF’ and ‘Maybe’ are the worlds of dreamers, not the facts as they exist. The oceans hold more gold than was ever mined, but it is not recoverable. Never will be.

    I have often said here that there will be billions of barrels of oil left in the ground when the Age of Petroleum ends and there they will stay, forever. I hope that day soon comes, while there is still some life support left on their planet.

  24. Permavillage on Mon, 20th Aug 2018 7:45 pm 

    Peakoil is a fact… A fact cannot die

  25. MASTERMIND on Mon, 20th Aug 2018 7:58 pm 

    Fox claims wages are going up. They’re actually falling.

    https://www.mediamatters.org/blog/2018/08/20/fox-claims-wages-are-going-theyre-actually-falling/221025

  26. Cloggie on Mon, 20th Aug 2018 10:52 pm 

    Millimind keeps posting moldy links from the Heinberg days that are no more like the Pavlov dog that he is. After 2012 we entered a new world of oil extraction, that oil amateurs like Heinberg or the German army or even ASPO did not foresee. The old peak oil story was about conventional oil only. But that message of depletion doom was made null and void by the rise of non-conventional production methods, best described by Michael Klare as the “Third Carbon Age”, with coal (19th century/Britain) the first and conventional oil (20th century/US) the second carbon age:

    https://www.thenation.com/article/third-carbon-age/

    In this 21st century, the new message is that virtually endless amounts of carbon reserves exist that with new production technologies can be exploited:

    – 4.5 trillion barrels of oil (1 trillion remaining conventional+a few trillion shale)
    – tens of trillions of TONS of coal under the North Sea alone that can be gasified
    – methane hydrates scattered over the world’s ocean floors 0.5-5.0 trillion ton

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Methane_clathrate#Reservoir_size

    The “downside” is that probably the price per kWh from this third carbon age fuel is substantially higher than that of conventional oil, but it is still payable, as the world of the 21st century is literally saturated with energy technologies that all have the potential to save energy. We can do the same things with ever less energy. Important examples: rise of the internet enabling to limit commuting, shared car robots, heat pumps, to name a
    few very important ones.

    The sufficient supply of kWh’s from carbon fuel is guaranteed, exit wild peak oil/peak carbon supply stories. Heinberg had his few years of fame but can now safely retreat into Trump bashing. Heinberg was majestically, nay titannically wrong.

    The depletion story has been replaced by the climate change story. There is more carbon left than the atmosphere can handle. There is “enough to fry us all”. This has been fortunately recognized by the Paris Climate Accords. The peak oil supply story may be dead, but it doesn’t matter much, because we can’t actually afford to use these new carbon supply riches, although they buy us some valuable time.

    Enter renewable energy. They come without environmental problems, as far as we can see now and prices per kWh are meanwhile competative enough for frontrunners in Europe to achieve 90% renewable new capacity installation, guaranteeing a renewable energy base in a couple of decades, at least in Europe. Remaining problem: storage, but that problem is recognized and addressed, where the options are endless.

    Morale: don’t worry (too much) about energy supply, worry about the fate of the planet and humanity (environment, nukes, degradation, overpopulation, rise of the third world at the cost of the developed world).

  27. MASTERMIND on Mon, 20th Aug 2018 11:59 pm 

    Clogg

    Here is a link from a few months ago

    Is The World Sleepwalking Into The Next Oil Crisis
    https://www.forbes.com/sites/rrapier/2018/03/23/is-the-world-sleepwalking-into-an-oil-crisis/#509edc8b44cf

    Is that good enough for you Mr Strawman?

    And unconventional oil can’t make up for the entire worlds declining conventional legacy fields..

    Chevron CEO warns US shale oil alone cannot meet the world’s growing demand for crude
    https://www.cnbc.com/2017/05/01/us-shale-cannot-meet-the-worlds-growing-oil-demand-chevron-ceo-warns.html

    LMFAO!

  28. MASTERMIND on Tue, 21st Aug 2018 12:01 am 

    Clogg

    The End of the Oil Age is Imminent!

    Recently, the HSBC oil report stated that 80% of conventional oil fields were declining at a rate of 5-7% per year. This means that there will be an oil shortage of ~30 million barrels per day by 2030 and ~40 million barrels per day by 2040.
    http://www.scribd.com/document/367688629/HSBC-Peak-Oil-Report-2017

    What is mentioned far less often is that annual oil discoveries have lagged annual production since the 1980s.
    https://imgur.com/a/6dEDt

    Now, this problem has nothing to do with the recent decline in the oil price, which started in 2014. This has been an on-going problem for the past 30 years. Now, the IEA is predicting oil shortages by ~2020 due to declining exploration.
    https://www.wsj.com/articles/iea-says-global-oil-discoveries-at-record-low-in-2016-1493244000

    Here, the IEA blames this problem on the low oil price. But, this problem started in the 1980s. The problem is geological: we are running out of conventional cheap oil. Shale and tar sands are not the answer, either. Those resources are far too expensive, compared to conventional oil, because the global economy is based on cheap conventional oil. Expensive oil is not a replacement for cheap oil.

    Based upon the HSBC report and the IEA, the End of Oil Age will start around ~2020: there will be a dramatic economic depression due to exhaustion of cheap oil. This will cause a global economic collapse.

  29. MASTERMIND on Tue, 21st Aug 2018 12:04 am 

    clog

    The easy oil is gone

    Oil discoveries peaked in the 1960’s.

    Every year since 1984 oil consumption has exceeded oil discovery.

    In 2017 oil discoveries were about 7 billion barrels; consumption was about 35 billion barrels

    Of the world’s 20 largest oil fields, 18 were discovered 1917-1968; 2 in the 1970’s; 0 since.

    https://imgur.com/a/6dEDt
    https://www.chron.com/business/energy/article/Oil-discoveries-in-2017-hit-all-time-low-12447212.php

  30. Cloggie on Tue, 21st Aug 2018 12:54 am 

    The easy oil is gone

    High hanging fruit is just as tasty and nutritious as low hanging fruit, you only need a higher ladder, but meanwhile we have that ladder.

    Oil discoveries peaked in the 1960’s.

    Wrong. The fracking industry just announced the existence of 4.5 – 1.0 = 3.5 trillion barrel of oil that can be fracked world-wide.

    How about you picking up knitting and stop spreading fake news.

  31. MASTERMIND on Tue, 21st Aug 2018 1:04 am 

    Clogg

    Let me explain this to you again for the thousandth time.

    Coal cannot work without crude, crude cannot work without coal, natural gas cannot work without both oil and coal, Shale oil cannot work without any of those, and so on…etc..

    Chevron CEO warns US shale oil alone cannot meet the world’s growing demand for crude
    https://www.cnbc.com/2017/05/01/us-shale-cannot-meet-the-worlds-growing-oil-demand-chevron-ceo-warns.html

  32. MASTERMIND on Tue, 21st Aug 2018 1:07 am 

    CLogg

    And they aren’t going to frack worldwide because they don’t have wall street to fund unprofitable production..And the US is down to one petty region of growth..And its currently stalled out and may not ever increase again..read the HSBC study and listen to the IEA..Shale is a tiny fraction of oil production and can’t make up for all the worlds declining conventional legacy fields..

    HSBC Global Bank: 81% of world liquids production already in decline and world oil shortages ahead
    https://www.scribd.com/document/367688629/HSBC-Peak-Oil-Report-2017

    People are almost completely ignoring a looming crisis for oil
    http://www.businessinsider.com/the-future-of-oil-supply-and-demand-2016-9

    All That New Shale Oil May Not Be Enough as Big Discoveries Drop
    https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2017-12-27/all-that-new-shale-oil-may-not-be-enough-as-big-discoveries-drop

  33. Cloggie on Tue, 21st Aug 2018 1:10 am 

    Coal cannot work without crude, crude cannot work without coal, natural gas cannot work without both oil and coal, Shale oil cannot work without any of those, and so on…etc..

    That’s a shabby, not too bright, low-quality Marxist, who can hardly carry his own weight, like you saying so.

    Europe, the source of science and technology…

    https://documents1940.wordpress.com/2017/09/26/origin-scientific-accomplishments/

    …says it can have a renewable energy base.
    It will.

    https://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/home-news/renewable-energy-electricity-wind-wave-scotland-climate-change-oil-gas-a8283166.html

    https://cleantechnica.com/2018/01/06/44-wind-denmark-smashed-already-huge-wind-energy-records-2017/

  34. MASTERMIND on Tue, 21st Aug 2018 1:16 am 

    Clogg

    You can’t transition transportation because it takes liquid fuels..

    ‘Silent Sam’ is down: Protesters topple Confederate statue on UNC campus

    https://www.wral.com/-silent-sam-is-down-protesters-topple-confederate-statue-on-unc-campus/17783175/

  35. rockman on Tue, 21st Aug 2018 12:26 pm 

    Sissy – “So Rockamondo, how many of the 4.5 barrels are economically retrievable and how much am I going to be paying for gas in 2022?” I have no idea. And obviously no one else does otherwise they would state that number instead of offering the TECHNICALY RECOVERABLE reserve number. A number, BTW, I have very little confidence in.

    Regardless the accuracy of either reserve number has no baring on future production rates (which the basis of PO) nor the future price you’ll pay for gasoline. The POD will determine that price.

  36. rockman on Tue, 21st Aug 2018 12:35 pm 

    Uncle Bill – “ROCKMAN doesn’t bicker!?” I don’t recall you ever offering FACTS rebutting any FACTS the Rockman has posted, have you?

    Talk is cheap from the peanut gallery. Especially words that offer nothing of substance. Ya know, that sounds like bickering to me. LOL.

  37. Cloggie on Tue, 21st Aug 2018 12:49 pm 

    ‘Silent Sam’ is down: Protesters topple Confederate statue on UNC campus

    https://www.wral.com/-silent-sam-is-down-protesters-topple-confederate-statue-on-unc-campus/17783175/

    Excellent news! Chapel Hill is in NC anyway, or in “Trans-Appalachia”/Greater Baltimore, you can have that anyway; “university”, hahaha, in America, hahaha, Marxist territory.

    As long as you stay away from the Mississippi River Delta, which is reserved for Euro’s, we’ll get along fine.

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mississippi_River#/media/File:Mississippiriver-new-01.png

    I see that the statue is taken down by mystery meat like Ashwan Awan. That’s fine, anything that pisses whitey off is good and is backed by the 2 billion of Eurasia, who will ensure that nobody in the US is going to win the coming standoff.

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r-Uuqv3kogc

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=12Szp1Ozp6A

  38. MASTERMIND on Tue, 21st Aug 2018 12:58 pm 

    Clogg

    You don’t speak for 2 billion people you low iq imbecile..

    Maybe you should worry about your own backyard while your bridges are collapsing..

    lmfAO!

  39. JuanP on Tue, 21st Aug 2018 2:07 pm 

    Mm “Maybe you should worry about your own backyard while your bridges are collapsing..”

    Bridges are collapsing in the USA, too!

  40. MASTERMIND on Tue, 21st Aug 2018 2:17 pm 

    I have a dream..

    https://imgur.com/upload

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