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THE Volcano Thread Pt. 2

Re: THE Volcano Thread Pt. 2

Unread postby dohboi » Sat 05 May 2018, 10:36:26

See the massive sinkhole — six stories deep, two football fields long — that opened underneath a New Zealand farm. A volcanologist says it may have been growing underground for up to 100 years before recent heavy rain opened it up.

https://cbsloc.al/2Idx4Tu
https://twitter.com/CBSLA/status/992496999458099200

(I'm pretty sure Saruman had something to do with this one! :) )
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Re: THE Volcano Thread Pt. 2

Unread postby Plantagenet » Sat 05 May 2018, 18:29:59

dohboi wrote:And now...Alaska:

https://www.cnn.com/2018/05/05/us/alask ... index.html

I wasn't even aware that Alaska had volcanoes!


On average about one eruption per year occurs at one or other of the Aleutian Island Volcanoes. Mt. Cleveland is among the most active, but the island its on is uninhabited.

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If a volcano erupts on an island that is so remote that no one hears it, does it make a sound?

Cheers!
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Re: THE Volcano Thread Pt. 2

Unread postby dohboi » Sun 06 May 2018, 16:57:55

Thanks, P. And...no (but it does make noise! :) )

Meanwhile, further south:

Lava Flows and Sulfur Dioxide Threaten Leilani Estates on Kilauea


The new eruption far on the East Rift zone of Kilauea is continuing. The latest count has at least 10 fissure vents erupting ... on the east side of Leilani Estates and more cracks in the ground, some releasing copious sulfur dioxide gas.

The lava flows coming from the fissures vents that are intermittently erupting has destroyed at least 5 homes so far with more being threatened and has overrun a number of roads. The lava fountains from the active fissure vents have reached as high 70 meters (215 feet) — you can watch some of the impressive footage of the eruption below. All of the Leilani Estates subdivision has been evacuated with little idea when residents might be permitted back into their homes.

In some of the most stunning video, you can see a fissure erupting in the middle of an area of homes. These vents could be active for weeks-to-months, so many of these homes could be inundated with lava. This part of Hawaii is by no means wealthy, so the stakes are high for the people who live in Leilani Estates — many of which may not be able to just “pick up and leave”.

However, it is the sulfur dioxide gas that is the real danger to people, as the concentrations being emitted are high enough to kill someone — the sulfur dioxide combines with water in your lungs and throat to form sulfuric acid! The sulfur dioxide plume has been mapped from the Suomi-NPP satellite, spreading to the southwest of the eruption...


http://blogs.discovermagazine.com/rocky ... n-kilauea/
Maps and video at the link.
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Re: THE Volcano Thread Pt. 2

Unread postby ROCKMAN » Mon 07 May 2018, 10:58:38

Some interesting facts: Kīlauea's eruptive history has been a long and active one; its name means "spewing" or "much spreading" in the Hawaiian language, referring to its frequent outpouring of lava. Lavas younger than 1,000 years cover 90 percent of the island's surface. Not unreasonable to expect every structure to be destroyed in some X hundred years. The elevation above sea level of the island doesn’t look that significant but: "It is the TALLEST mountain on earth. Measured from its base on the ocean floor, it rises over 33,000 ft, significantly greater than the elevation of Mount Everest above sea level. Amazing given it began growing only 350,000 to 400,000 years ago.
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Re: THE Volcano Thread Pt. 2

Unread postby dohboi » Mon 04 Jun 2018, 00:26:54

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Re: THE Volcano Thread Pt. 2

Unread postby ROCKMAN » Tue 05 Jun 2018, 12:22:15

baha - Interesting catch...thanks. Such variations in the Yellowstone magma chamber have been monitored for years. But volcanic activity is not related to activity in the earth's core. From

https://blogs.agu.org/martianchronicles ... -come-fro/

"Lava: Where does it come from?

Well, volcanoes. And the lava in volcanoes comes from deep in the earth where everything is molten, right? Wrong! It’s true that as you go deeper into the earth, things heat up, but the earth isn’t a crispy rock shell around a gooey molten center. The crust, mantle and inner core of the earth are all solid rock (or iron in the case of the core). The only large portion of the earth’s interior that is liquid is the outer core, and lava does not come from there (again, if it did, it would be molten iron)."

Volcanos, as well as hot spots that generate geysers, are very shallow and cover a very limited area compared to the entire globe. As such activity in Yellowstone, Hawaii, Guatemala, Iceland et al are not related.
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Re: THE Volcano Thread Pt. 2

Unread postby Revi » Tue 05 Jun 2018, 14:01:30

I used to live on the slope of the next volcano over, Volcan de Agua. I was up above Ciudad Vieja above Antigua. It was about 5 miles from Volcan de Agua. There were earthquakes all the time and Volcan de Fuego would smoke as I recall.

It's been erupting a lot lately. The two volcanoes were the reason they moved the capital down to Guatemala City.

I hope Antigua is okay. It's right beneath both volcanoes!
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Re: THE Volcano Thread Pt. 2

Unread postby rockdoc123 » Tue 05 Jun 2018, 16:22:18

Well, volcanoes. And the lava in volcanoes comes from deep in the earth where everything is molten, right? Wrong! It’s true that as you go deeper into the earth, things heat up, but the earth isn’t a crispy rock shell around a gooey molten center. The crust, mantle and inner core of the earth are all solid rock (or iron in the case of the core). The only large portion of the earth’s interior that is liquid is the outer core, and lava does not come from there (again, if it did, it would be molten iron)."

Volcanos, as well as hot spots that generate geysers, are very shallow and cover a very limited area compared to the entire globe. As such activity in Yellowstone, Hawaii, Guatemala, Iceland et al are not related.


well it depends on what you mean by "liquid". If you use it in the context of liquid as in a glass of water or liquid in the context of physical properties where for all intents and purposes a material behaves as a newtonian fluid. In the latter case the upper asthenosphere behaves in this manner, most of the rock material is in a molten form and behaves as a newtonian fluid. And what is "shallow" is also a matter of perspective. The upper asthenosphere where the Yellowstone hot spot originates is at a depth of around 30 km, which would be shallow in the context of the depth to the inner mantle but in itself is pretty deep. Yellowstone and Kiluea are both hotspot related whereas many of the others are related to rising partical melt back arc of subduction zones. To some extent back arc basin volcanoes located along the same plate margin can be related as they are partly due to speed of plate spread and hence subduction. In the distant past there does seem to be some relationship between the speed of plate accretion (measured by spacing of magnetic stripes on the sea floor) and periods of greater volcanic activity. Still not well understood.
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Re: THE Volcano Thread Pt. 2

Unread postby dohboi » Mon 18 Jun 2018, 15:04:35

Not really a volcano, or even an earthquake...but...wow!!


"Mexico’s Institute of Geological and Atmospheric Research reported an increase in seismic activity at exactly the moment Lozano scored in the 35th minute of the game against reigning champions Germany – sparking mass celebrations..."

https://www.rt.com/sport/430033-world-c ... arthquake/

also at BBC Sport: https://www.bbc.com/sport/football/44513006
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Re: THE Volcano Thread Pt. 2

Unread postby ROCKMAN » Tue 19 Jun 2018, 10:52:20

Revi - Same problem we have here with folks building in active flood plains. Cheaper land just like the areas at the base of volcanic slopes. A good plan...until it isn't.
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Re: THE Volcano Thread Pt. 2

Unread postby dohboi » Sun 23 Dec 2018, 14:19:59

Krakatoa Volcano (Sunda Strait, Indonesia): Possible Major Eruption With Ash to 55,000 ft Following Deadly Tsunami

https://www.volcanodiscovery.com/krakat ... deadl.html

(Don't worry, though, I'm pretty sure Krakatoa has never had any major eruptions... :-D 8O :| )
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Re: THE Volcano Thread Pt. 2

Unread postby dohboi » Mon 10 Jun 2019, 00:41:43

Mount Sinabung erupts in western Indonesia...

A column of thick ash was spewed 7km high into the sky from the crater of Mount Sinabung volcano on Sumatra Island of western Indonesia on Sunday (June 9), the country's national volcanology agency said.

The volcano began belching ash and smoke at 4.28pm Jakarta time, followed by a spread of hot ash to the southeast and south of the crater by up to 3.5km and 3km respectively, the agency said in a statement...


https://www.straitstimes.com/asia/se-as ... s-reported
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Re: THE Volcano Thread Pt. 2

Unread postby Revi » Mon 10 Jun 2019, 10:57:11

dohboi wrote:Mount Sinabung erupts in western Indonesia...

A column of thick ash was spewed 7km high into the sky from the crater of Mount Sinabung volcano on Sumatra Island of western Indonesia on Sunday (June 9), the country's national volcanology agency said.

The volcano began belching ash and smoke at 4.28pm Jakarta time, followed by a spread of hot ash to the southeast and south of the crater by up to 3.5km and 3km respectively, the agency said in a statement...


https://www.straitstimes.com/asia/se-as ... s-reported


We could use the cooling effect from a volcanic eruption! Pinatubo cooled us off for a little while. Maybe we'll cool for a few years. It has to be a big one, however...
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Re: THE Volcano Thread Pt. 2

Unread postby Tanada » Thu 16 Jan 2020, 16:09:48

Philippine volcano eruption shuts down Manila’s international airport

Published January 13, 2020

TAGAYTAY, Philippines (AP) — Red-hot lava gushed out of a Philippine volcano Monday after a sudden eruption of ash and steam that forced villagers to flee en masse and shut down Manila’s international airport, offices and schools.

Clouds of ash blew more than 100 kilometers (62 miles) north of the Taal volcano, reaching the bustling capital, Manila, and forcing the shutdown of the country's main airport with more than 500 flights cancelled so far.

Taal Volcano continues to spew ash on Monday Jan. 13, 2020, in Tagaytay, Cavite province, south of Manila, Philippines. (AP Photo/Aaron Favila)

Police reported that more than 13,000 villagers have moved to evacuation centers in the hard-hit province of Batangas and nearby Cavite province, but officials expect the number to swell with hundreds of thousands more being brought out of harm’s way.

The current evacuation numbers are likely higher since local authorities are busy helping displaced people before notifying the national agency that is collating the figures. Some residents could not move out of ash-blanketed villages due to a lack of transport and poor visibility immediately, while others are refusing to leave their homes and farms.

Residents clean ash outside their homes as Taal Volcano still spews ash on Monday Jan. 13, 2020, in Tagaytay, Cavite province, south of Manila, Philippines. (AP Photo/Aaron Favila)

“We have a problem, our people are panicking due to the volcano because they want to save their livelihood, their pigs and herds of cows,” Mayor Wilson Maralit of Balete town told DZMM radio. “We’re trying to stop them from returning and warning that the volcano can explode again anytime and hit them.”

Maralit, whose town lies along the shoreline of Taal Lake surrounding the erupting volcano, appealed for troops and additional police to be deployed to stop distraught residents from sneaking back to their high-risk villages.

'RING OF FIRE' FURY STRIKES ALASKA, PHILIPPINES, JAPAN

Several planes stranded at the Manila airport may be allowed to take off Monday once they are cleaned of ash and authorities are sure an easterly shift in ash-laden wind away from the capital would not revert, airport general Ed Monreal told a news conference. The airport cannot accommodate incoming flights until stranded aircraft fly out and free up parking bays, he said.

President Rodrigo Duterte’s aircraft was able to land Monday, however, after his flight from his southern Davao city hometown was delayed on Sunday by the volcanic eruption, his spokesman said.

Taal had been restive for months until it suddenly rumbled back to life Sunday, blasting steam, ash and pebbles up to 10 to 15 kilometers (6 to 9 miles) into the sky, according to the Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology. The lava spurting from the volcano's vents Monday was falling into the lake surrounding the crater.

The government volcano-monitoring agency raised the danger level around Taal three notches to level 4, indicating “an imminent hazardous eruption.” Level 5, the highest, means a hazardous eruption is underway and could affect a larger area with high-risk zones that would need to be cleared of people, said Renato Solidum, who heads the institute.

Ma. Antonio Bornas, the agency’s chief volcanologist, said Taal spurted fountains of lava early Monday while its ash and steam ejections slightly eased. It’s hard to tell when the eruption would stop, she said, citing the volcano’s similar restiveness in the 1970s that lasted for about four months.

With the ashfall easing Monday morning, some residents began to shovel away inches of ash that covered everything from homes to cars and roads in Tagaytay, a popular upland resort city on a ridge that overlooks the small but picturesque volcano in the middle of a crater lake. Many of the city’s restaurants and coffee shops, however, were closed, its main road covered in volcanic ash.

Large numbers of displaced villagers worried about the homes, farms and cattle they left behind and the uncertain future they face. Irene de Claro, a mother of four, worried about her father, who stayed in their village in Agoncillo town in Batangas while the rest of the family fled in panic.

“My father is missing. We don’t know too what happened to our house because the ash was up to our knees, it was very dark and the ground was constantly shaking when we left,” de Castro told The Associated Press in a school in Lemery town in Batangas. “Most likely there’s nothing for us to return to. We’re back to zero.”

She later paused as the ground shook again.

The volcanology institute reminded the public that the small island where the volcano lies is a “permanent danger zone,” although fishing villages have existed there for years. It stressed that the “total evacuation” of people on the volcano island and lakeshore “at high risk to pyroclastic density currents and volcanic tsunami within a 14-kilometer (8.7-mile) radius from Taal.”

Authorities continue to detect swarms of earthquakes, some of them felt with rumbling sounds, and a slight inflation of portions of the 1,020-foot (311-meter) volcano, officials said and advised residents to stay indoors and wear masks and goggles outdoors.

Government work and classes in schools in a wide swath of towns and cities were suspended Monday, including in Manila, to avoid health risks posed by the ashfall. At least four Batangas towns reported power outages.

One of the world’s smallest volcanoes, Taal is among two dozen active volcanoes in the Philippines, which lies along the so-called Pacific “Ring of Fire,” a seismically active region that is prone to earthquakes and volcanic eruptions.

About 20 typhoons and other major storms each year also lash the Philippines, which lies between the Pacific and the South China Sea, making it one of the world’s most disaster-prone countries.


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Re: THE Volcano Thread Pt. 2

Unread postby Tanada » Thu 16 Jan 2020, 16:15:50

LOTS of pictures at link below quote.

Lava spews out of Philippine volcano as thousands flee homes

Red-hot lava gushed out of a Philippine volcano today after a sudden eruption of ash and steam that forced thousands to flee their homes.

Fountains of lava were pouring into the lake surrounding the Taal volcano today after it spewed out columns of ash as high as nine miles into the sky on Sunday.

Clouds of ash blew more than 60 miles north of the volcano, reaching Manila and shutting down the country's main airport with hundreds of flights cancelled.

There were no early reports of casualties but authorities were today scrambling to evacuate more than 6,000 villagers from the volcanic island in the middle of a lake which is usually a popular tourist spot.

Lightning crackled in the smoke while a series of earthquakes rattled the area and authorities have warned of a further 'explosive eruption' which could even trigger a tsunami surging across the lake.

What is volcanic lightning?

Lightning sometimes forms during volcanic eruptions, creating spectacular scenes such as those in the Philippines last night.

The phenomenon was observed as long ago as AD 79 during the eruption of Vesuvius which destroyed Pompeii.

Why this happens is less clear, and even scientists have described it as 'mysterious'. The lightning does not originate from a thunderstorm, nor does it come from inside the volcano.

A 2016 study suggested that ash particles split apart and scrape against each other during an eruption, creating friction and a build-up of electric charge.

Eventually the electricity is discharged to the ground in the form of lightning.

The development of ice crystals - which can happen at the top of the ash plume during a volcanic eruption - is also believed to contribute to the lightning strikes.

Scientists say the lightning strikes are usually confined to the cloud of ash, so are unlikely to threaten humans, but have been known to start forest fires.

The eruption began with an explosion of superheated steam and rock, but by early Monday 'fountains' of lava had been spotted on Taal, the volcano monitoring agency said.

Stunning lightning shows have periodically played out above the volcano in a little-understood phenomenon that is attributed to static electricity.

The agency today raised the danger level around Taal three notches to level 4, indicating 'an imminent hazardous eruption.'

'We have asked people in high-risk areas, including the volcano island, to evacuate now ahead of a possible hazardous eruption,' Renato Solidum, who heads the institute, said.

Solidum said the lava was evidence of fresh movement in the volcano, but said it was unclear if Taal would 'sustain its activity'.

Scientists recorded magma moving towards the crater of Taal, which is located 45 miles south of Manila.

Police reported that more than 13,000 villagers have moved to evacuation centers in the hard-hit province of Batangas and nearby Cavite province.

The current evacuation numbers are likely higher and officials expect the number to swell with hundreds of thousands more being brought out of harm's way.

Dust masks sold out in stores as authorities warned locals that the ash could cause respiratory problems especially in the very young and those with pre-existing lung conditions.

There were no immediate reports of injuries or damage but authorities scrambled to evacuate more than 6,000 villagers from an island in the middle of a lake, where the volcano lies, officials said

Limited flight operations resumed mid-Monday at Manila's main international airport, nearly a day after authorities halted them due to the safety risk volcanic ash poses to planes.

'I'm disappointed because this (delay) means additional expense for me and it's tiring to wait,' said stranded traveller Joan Diocaras, a 28-year-old Filipino who works in Taiwan.

'But there's nothing we can do.'

However, travellers booked on over 240 cancelled flights still faced delays at Ninoy Aquino International Airport.

Renelyn Bautista, a 38-year-old housewife from Batangas province's Laurel town, said she immediately fled from her home with her two children, including a four-month-old baby, after Taal erupted and the ground shook mildly twice.

'We hurriedly evacuated when the air turned muddy because of the ashfall and it started to smell like gunpowder,' Bautista said.

' Mayor Wilson Maralit of Balete town told DZMM radio: 'We have a problem, our people are panicking due to the volcano because they want to save their livelihood, their pigs and herds of cows.

'We're trying to stop them from returning and warning that the volcano can explode again anytime and hit them.'

Maralit, whose town lies along the shoreline of Taal Lake surrounding the erupting volcano, appealed for troops and additional police to be deployed to stop distraught residents from sneaking back to their high-risk villages.

Taal sits in a picturesque lake and is one of the most active volcanoes in a nation where earthquakes and eruptions are a frightening and destructive part of life.

About 20 typhoons and storms each year also lash the Philippines, which lies between the Pacific and the South China Sea, making it one of the world's most disaster-prone countries.

The volcanology institute says the small island where the volcano lies is a 'permanent danger zone,' although fishing villages have existed there for years.

It asked nearby coastal communities 'to take precautionary measures and be vigilant of possible lake water disturbances related to the ongoing unrest.'

Taal's last eruption was in 1977, Solidum said.

The most powerful explosion in recent years was the 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo, about 100 kilometres northwest of Manila, which killed more than 800 people.


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Re: THE Volcano Thread Pt. 2

Unread postby Tanada » Thu 16 Jan 2020, 16:21:05

Officials block villagers as quakes shake Philippine volcano

LEMERY, Philippines (AP) — A Philippine volcano that erupted last weekend belched smaller plumes of ash but shuddered frequently with earthquakes Thursday, prompting authorities to block access to nearby towns due to fears of a bigger eruption.

A crater lake and nearby river on the Taal volcano dried up in signs of its continued restiveness, and officials have warned people against speculating that the five-day eruption is waning.

“We have a seeming lull, but, again, as we emphasized earlier, there is something different happening beneath the volcano,” Ma. Antonio Bornas of the Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology told reporters, citing continued tremors, steaming and other signs of magma movement.

Renato Solidum, who heads the institute, said it may take up to two weeks for experts to assess whether the volcano’s restiveness has eased. The Taal area has remained just a notch down from the highest level of a five-step alert system the institute uses to warn the public of a volcano’s danger.

Soldiers and police blocked villagers from going back to the island volcano and nearby towns to retrieve belongings, poultry and cattle.

Many houses and farms have been damaged by volcanic ash since the eruption started Sunday, though no deaths or major injuries have been reported after tens of thousands of people evacuated.

A 65-year-old woman died of a heart attack while being moved out of Taal town in Batangas province but officials said she had been ill and may have been stressed by the calamity. Batangas province lies more than 65 kilometers (40 miles) south of the capital, Manila.

Amid warnings of a possible imminent and more dangerous eruption, police cordoned off at least four towns near shores of a lake that surrounds the volcano. The move sparked arguments with villagers.

“We’ve lost everything. Our house got damaged. But I need to retrieve my pots and cooking ware and other things. They should not be very, very strict,” 59-year-old Erlinda Landicho said.

Landicho, who fled with her son from Lemery municipality as the volcano erupted, was among a throng of villagers stopped by police from reentering the ash-blanketed town. A firetruck blocked a key access road and police set up checkpoints. Beyond the barricade, Lemery looked like a ghost town partly shrouded in swirling ash.

More than 125,000 people fled their homes just in Batangas, which has declared a state of calamity to allow faster release of emergency funds. At least 373 evacuation sites were crammed with displaced villagers and needed more ash masks, portable toilets, bottled water and sleeping mats, according to a provincial disaster-response office.

The government’s main disaster agency reported a little more than 68,000 people were displaced by the eruption in Batangas and Cavite provinces. The reason for the discrepancy was not immediately clear.

Cavite was also placed under a state of calamity after being swamped by thousands of displaced villagers from nearby Batangas.

Among those displaced were about 5,000 people who live on the island where the Taal volcano lies. The island is a popular tourist destination renowned for its stunning view of the volcano’s crater lake and lush hills teeming with trees and birds. Some villagers have slipped past checkpoints to retrieve some of the hundreds of cows and horses they left behind, prompting the coast guard and police to intensify a security cordon.

About four villages exist on the island despite it being a permanent danger zone. Defense Secretary Delfin Lorenzana has recommended that villagers should not be allowed back.

The 1,020-foot (311-meter) Taal is one of the world’s smallest volcanoes but also the second-most restive of about two dozen active volcanoes across the Philippines. The Southeast Asian archipelago lies in the Pacific "Ring of Fire,” the string of faults around the ocean basin where much of the world’s earthquakes and volcanic eruptions occur.


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Re: THE Volcano Thread Pt. 2

Unread postby Subjectivist » Sat 21 Nov 2020, 15:57:45

An Italian volcano suddenly erupted on Monday in a spectacular explosion that sent a torrent of debris and hot ash pouring down the mountainside.

The volcano on Stromboli, an island located off the coast of Sicily, is one of the most active on earth.

Time-lapse video and thermal cameras both captured the eruption, in all of its dramatic fury.

The explosion and "landslide events" lasted for a "duration of 4 minutes," according to Italy's National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology.


https://www.nbcnews.com/news/us-news/ca ... n-n1248049
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Re: THE Volcano Thread Pt. 2

Unread postby dissident » Mon 23 Nov 2020, 18:12:40

Subjectivist wrote:
An Italian volcano suddenly erupted on Monday in a spectacular explosion that sent a torrent of debris and hot ash pouring down the mountainside.

The volcano on Stromboli, an island located off the coast of Sicily, is one of the most active on earth.

Time-lapse video and thermal cameras both captured the eruption, in all of its dramatic fury.

The explosion and "landslide events" lasted for a "duration of 4 minutes," according to Italy's National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology.


https://www.nbcnews.com/news/us-news/ca ... n-n1248049


I hope they are not going charge some seismologists for negligence...
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