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EcoMotors OPOC Engine, 100 mpg?

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EcoMotors OPOC Engine, 100 mpg?

Unread postby Rune » Tue 29 Oct 2013, 15:02:48

The OPOC Engine, 100 mpg?

Engine Production Expected To Begin In 2014
$200 Million Deal to Build OPOC Engine Plant

Zhongding Power and EcoMotors today announced the closing of a commercial agreement to produce the opoc® engine, a breakthrough technology that has the potential to be the world’s cleanest, most efficient, lightweight, and lowest cost internal combustion engine. One of the largest automotive component conglomerates in China, Zhongding will finance and construct the first opoc® plant in the Anhui Province. The plant represents an investment by Zhongding of over US $200 million and will have a capacity of about 150,000 engines per year – over US $1 billion in revenue potential. High-volume production is expected to begin in 2014.

The opoc® engine technology developed and owned by EcoMotors can deliver the same power level as conventional engines at half the size, a lower cost, and lower emissions. With the potential for 20-50% better fuel economy compared to a state-of-the-art, conventional turbo-diesel engine, EcoMotors’ opoc® engine has the potential to revolutionize the internal combustion engine.

The inaugural opoc® plant has received the full support of key Chinese government bodies, including the Xuangcheng government and Anhui provincial authorities; a second Zhongding production site may be announced at a later date. Zhongding plans to supply opoc® engines to a broad range of customers, including GenSet engines, off-road and commercial vehicles. A key provision of the agreement allocates a portion of the plant’s output to EcoMotors for sale and distribution to its own direct customers.

full article at http://www.ecomotors.com/zhongding-powe ... gine-plant


OPOC: Opposed Pistons, Opposed Cylinders
Bill Gates and fellow billionaire Vinod Khosla announced that they were investing $23 million in EcoMotors, a Michigan company that has promised to produce an engine that would convert far more of its fuel energy into useful work, and in doing so crack 100 mpg.

In its key operating range, a diesel OPOC could convert as much as 48 percent of its fuel’s energy into work, beating today’s best diesels. Moreover, an OPOC engine is just half the size and weight of a comparably powered conventional engine, which reduces the burden of moving its own mass.


Image

This design configuration eliminates the cylinder-head and valve-train components of conventional engines, offering an efficient, compact and simple core engine structure, resulting in a type of engine that is lighter, more efficient and economical, with lower exhaust emissions compared with conventional designs.

the EM100 diesel model, which has a cylinder bore size of 100mm and weighs 134 kilogrammes, it is capable of producing 325hp at 3500rpm along with an incredible 900Nm of torque.


I first read about this engine here on PO.com years ago. Lately, I have looking at old subjects to see whatever became of them.

Well, the OPOC engine is scheduled to begin production in China in 2014. Seems like everything is beginning production in 2014.

When I first read about EcoMotors OPOC engine, I thought, "Hmmm... this should be a reality in just a few years. It's incredible how long you have to wait for things. Even things that don't seem all that difficult to produce.

Strangely, this sort of design was first invented in the 1920s by Robert Bourke:

The Bourke engine

Bourke is to engines as Tesla is to alternators, this was no accident, Robert Bourke taught engine maintenance at the Unites States Air Service School at Kelly Field, Texas in 1918. He fully understood the theoretical limitations of the Otto 4 cycle and sought a simpler design and for years worked on the problem until 1932 when he built a working prototype. Bourke set out to overcome the complex design of gasoline engines, he succeeded. The Army Air Force was impressed and awarded him a contract to build an aviation prototype. According to legend he did and connected a wooden prop to the crank, when he gunned the engine the torque was so great the prop sheered, the blades could not keep up with the engine RPM acceleration.

No real pilot ever complains about too much thrust, the rapid acceleration of a Bourke engine can be overcome with a gear box or throttle acceleration limiter.

The Bourke design is considered by some to be a ‘one-stroke’ engine. Every half turn of the engine, or 180 degrees of revolution, the engine has a power stroke, this is compared to a 2-stroke engine that fires every 360 degrees and 4-stroke every 2 revolutions, or 720 degrees.  Bourke’s engine is simple compared to high performance aircraft radial engines:


Image

And it has taken all this time for it to be adopted. Why?
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Re: EcoMotors OPOC Engine, 100 mpg?

Unread postby Plantagenet » Tue 29 Oct 2013, 15:18:03

The Wikipedia article is generally negative about Bourke engines.

It says: "Efficiency 0.25 (lb/h)/hp is claimed - about the same as the best diesel engine,[2] or roughly twice as efficient as the best two strokes. This is equivalent to a thermodynamic efficiency of 55.4%, which is an exceedingly high figure for a small internal combustion engine. In a test witnessed by a third party, the actual fuel consumption was 1.1 hp/(lb/h),[3] or 0.9 (lb/h)/hp, equivalent to a thermodynamic efficiency of about 12.5%, which is typical of a 1920s steam engine.[4]


Wikipedia also says:

The Bourke Engine has some interesting features, but the extravagant claims[9] for its performance are unlikely to be borne out by real tests[citation needed]. Many of the claims are contradictory.[10]
Seal friction from the seal between the air compressor chamber and the crankcase, against the connecting rod, will reduce the efficiency.[11]
Efficiency will be reduced due to pumping losses, as the air charge is compressed and expanded twice but energy is only extracted for power in one of the expansions per piston stroke.[12][13]
Engine weight is likely to be high because it will have to be very strongly built to cope with the high peak pressures seen as a result of the rapid high temperature combustion.[14]
Each piston pair is highly imbalanced as the two pistons move in the same direction at the same time, unlike in a boxer engine.[15] This will limit the speed range and hence the power of the engine, and increase its weight due to the strong construction necessary to react the high forces in the components.[16]
High speed two-stroke engines tend to be inefficient compared with four-strokes because some of the intake charge escapes unburnt with the exhaust.[17]
Use of excess air will reduce the torque available for a given engine size.[18]
Forcing the exhaust out rapidly through small ports will incur a further efficiency loss.[19]
Operating an internal combustion engine in detonation reduces efficiency due to heat lost from the combustion gases being scrubbed against the combustion chamber walls by the shock waves.[20]
Emissions - although some tests have shown low emissions in some circumstances, these were not necessarily at full power. As the scavenge ratio (i.e. engine torque) is increased more HC and CO will be emitted.[21]
Increased dwell time at TDC will allow more heat to be transferred to the cylinder walls, reducing the efficiency.[22]
When running in auto-ignition mode the timing of the start of the burn is controlled by the operating state of the engine, rather than directly as in a spark ignition or diesel engine. As such it may be possible to optimize it for one operating condition, but not for the wide range of torques and speeds that an engine typically sees. The result will be reduced efficiency and higher emissions.[23]
If the efficiency is high, then combustion temperatures must be high, as required by the Carnot cycle, and the air fuel mixture must be lean. High combustion temperatures and lean mixtures cause nitrogen dioxide to be formed.
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Re: EcoMotors OPOC Engine, 100 mpg?

Unread postby Rune » Tue 29 Oct 2013, 16:02:10

Wikipedia
The OPOC engine is an opposed-piston 2-stroke engine. The OPOC is a reciprocating internal combustion engine in which each cylinder has a piston at both ends, and no cylinder head. There are no valves or a cylinder head.[2]

Opposed piston engines have been manufactured using one, two and three crankshafts. However, the first opposed piston engine produced was by the French company Gobron-Brillié in 1900. The engine had one crankshaft and is very similar in concept to the EcoMotors OPOC engine design, except using a camshaft and valves. In 1903 a Gobron-Brillié car powered by the opposed piston engine was the first car ever to reach 100 mph.

The OPOC engine can be moduled with two, or more, engines coupled via an electric clutch between engines. When more power is needed the second engine is clutched in. When clutched out of service there are no friction or pumping losses from the second engine module. This arrangement in city running vehicles could have a small, highly economical engine as the prime engine and when accelerating hard, or pulling heavy loads, the second, or more, engines are clutched into service.[3]


Perhaps there was something wrong with the Bourke Engine.

But it was a member of a class of ICE designs that are very old and only now coming to fruition.

Wikipedia didn't have anything negative to say about the OPOC.

I'm no expert on this stuff, but it seems intuitively much better than current ICEs. At any rate, we will find out next year as they come rolling off chinese assembly lines.
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Re: EcoMotors OPOC Engine, 100 mpg?

Unread postby Scrub Puller » Tue 29 Oct 2013, 16:18:48

Yair . . . I have been reading about this design for quite awhile and will be convinced about its viability when the first does five thousand hours.

Opposed piston engines with no cylinder heads or valve train were in commercial production many years ago. I drove a truck with a three cylinder six piston supercharged two-stroke diesel back in the sixties and while the engines worked they were not noticeably better than conventional engines.

Like all two strokes, including the General Motors "screaming jimmy" they wouldn't hold a truck back on compression and were very easy to over speed descending hills.

Google Commer Knocker or Napier Deltic for more info on this design.

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Re: EcoMotors OPOC Engine, 100 mpg?

Unread postby Rune » Tue 29 Oct 2013, 16:38:14

YouTube

The OPOC Engine: How it works.

That is an incredibly small powerplant for the amount of horsepower it puts out.

The video describes the operation. A pre-production turbo-diesel model is shown for use in military vehicles.

Seems like all or most of the bugs are ironed out.

I like the idea that a consumer car could have two of these under the hood - one for low-load, like city driving, the other motor kicks in for higher load requirements.

Can't wait to see the BMW motorcycle version!
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Re: EcoMotors OPOC Engine, 100 mpg?

Unread postby Rune » Tue 29 Oct 2013, 18:01:59

Imagine an EcoMotor OPOC Engine running at constant RPM for use in a hybrid car. God, your mileage would just skyrocket!

Less weight, plenty of horsepower, double the efficiency

...and there would be plenty of room for the battery.

200 mpg?
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Re: EcoMotors OPOC Engine, 100 mpg?

Unread postby vision-master » Tue 29 Oct 2013, 18:23:52

Chinaman motors? My gwad! :lol:
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Re: EcoMotors OPOC Engine, 100 mpg?

Unread postby vision-master » Tue 29 Oct 2013, 18:26:25

the EM100 diesel model, which has a cylinder bore size of 100mm and weighs 134 kilogrammes, it is capable of producing 325hp at 3500rpm along with an incredible 900Nm of torque and it will blow up within two weeks time.


lol - put em into Semi tractors...........
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Re: EcoMotors OPOC Engine, 100 mpg?

Unread postby SeaGypsy » Tue 29 Oct 2013, 18:58:46

As Scrubby points out above, the lack of compression braking is an issue for heavy transport- probably one which can be overcome with brake upgrades. As a truck driver myself with a lot of truck driver friends, nobody is going to be in a hurry to jump in a truck without engine brakes. Brake failure is pretty common, engine brakes save lives. I'm not an engineer so I can't say how this missing factor can actually be compensated for.
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Re: EcoMotors OPOC Engine, 100 mpg?

Unread postby Rune » Tue 29 Oct 2013, 19:21:00

SeaGypsy wrote:As Scrubby points out above, the lack of compression braking is an issue for heavy transport- probably one which can be overcome with brake upgrades. As a truck driver myself with a lot of truck driver friends, nobody is going to be in a hurry to jump in a truck without engine brakes. Brake failure is pretty common, engine brakes save lives. I'm not an engineer so I can't say how this missing factor can actually be compensated for.


The engines being built in China are for generators and large trucks.

The US Army has a contract with EcoMotors for use in large vehicles.

Navistar reached an agreement with EcoMotors a few months ago to develop an engine for its Class 8 trucks. Navistar claims a 45% efficiency improvement.

From what I have read today, we won't be seeing these in small cars for a while. But who knows?

If compression braking is a problem, then Navistar won't use compression braking.

But it would seem to me that these would be ideal for use in hybrid applications where the engine runs at constant rpm.

Lots of questions remain - in fact, I emailed the company today just to ask about hybrid applications, just to see if there were any data on efficiency and cleanliness at constant rpm and to see if there were any ballpark estimates of mpg in hybrid use.

As regards braking, it would be an advantage to use a hybrid model to recapture energy from braking. So we will have to see what Navistar comes up with.

At any rate, we won't have to wait very long.
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Re: EcoMotors OPOC Engine, 100 mpg?

Unread postby Keith_McClary » Tue 29 Oct 2013, 19:28:24

vision-master wrote:Chinaman motors? My gwad! :lol:

Peter Hofbauer, the founder and chairman of EcoMotors, is the brains behind this business.
...
When retirement provided unsatisfactory, Hofbauer revived his engine concept. With development partners FEV and AVL, he got the first demonstration engines running in 2003 and attracted investment funds from DARPA. A couple of prototype units have been delivered to the US Army's tank-automotive R+D group.


8 min video (2011) linked on wiki:
http://www.engineeringtv.com/video/Oppo ... d-Cylinder
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Re: EcoMotors OPOC Engine, 100 mpg?

Unread postby SeaGypsy » Tue 29 Oct 2013, 19:39:01

Makes sense, hybrid would provide electric braking- avoid retrofitting beefed up brakes to trailers. What do you think of the skeptical points outlined- quoted from wiki Rune?
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Re: EcoMotors OPOC Engine, 100 mpg?

Unread postby Rune » Tue 29 Oct 2013, 19:49:47

SeaGypsy wrote:Makes sense, hybrid would provide electric braking- avoid retrofitting beefed up brakes to trailers. What do you think of the skeptical points outlined- quoted from wiki Rune?


I have been looking around for information on these things all day. There is not much out there for the public yet. But I would bet that Navistar is planning a diesel-hybrid truck.
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Re: EcoMotors OPOC Engine, 100 mpg?

Unread postby Rune » Tue 29 Oct 2013, 19:58:44

Green Car Congress

Image

EADS Innovation Works is presenting a concept helicopter with a diesel-electric hybrid propulsion system at the ILA Berlin Airshow 2010, 8-13 June.

50% more fuel-efficient.

The diesel-electric hybrid concept is one of the projects grouped under the name of eCO2avia by EADS Innovation Works. Highly efficient electrical motors driving the rotors, combined with OPOC (Opposed Piston, Opposed Cylinder) diesel engines (earlier post), reduce fuel consumption and emissions by up to 50% relative to a conventional twin-turbine powered helicopter.

The main components of this hybrid system are multiple diesel-electric motor-generator units, a pair of high-performance batteries and a power electronics unit controlling the energy flows for best efficiency. The OPOC diesel engines, designed and built by EcoMotors International in the US, offer a fuel economy improvement of up to 30% compared to today’s helicopter turbine engines.

The OPOC engine is a two-stroke turbocharged diesel engine in which the intake and exhaust ports are at opposite ends of the cylinders. As the pistons move, the exhaust slits are open before the intakes and turbochargers blow air through the cylinders to push out the exhaust gas and fill them with clean air. Since the engine needs positive pressure to do this, the turbochargers have electric motors to power them at low rpm when exhaust energy is low.

The pistons are connected to a short crankshaft, located between the two opposed cylinders. The volume formed between the two opposed pistons is the combustion chamber. These design features are the key to an OPOC engine’s power-to-weight ratio being as high as 2 kW/kg.

The OPOC engine’s power output shafts are fitted with advanced, weight-optimized generators delivering electrical current to a power electronics unit, which manages the distribution of the electricity to the electrical motors driving the main rotor and the tail rotor as well as the other user systems on the helicopter.

The speeds of the electric motors driving the rotors can be adjusted individually and controlled for best efficiency. The multiple OPOC engines run at their most fuel-efficient operating point during the cruise phase.

Running on biofuel made from algae (another eCO2avia project), the amount of carbon dioxide released during flight is about equivalent to the amount absorbed by the algae during their growth phase, EADS says. This, the company says, opens up the possibility of carbon-neutral flights.

The engines also emit up to 40% less NOx and very small amounts of sulphur oxides (ca. 10 ppm vs. 600 ppm for normal Jet A1 fuel/kerosene), due to the very low nitrogen and sulphur content of the biofuel compared with fossil fuel.

Several different kinds of combustion engines could be integrated into such a hybrid system, EADS notes.


These OPOC engines were originally designed to satisfy a DARPA spec requirement for helicopter engines. These engines are very light and powerful.

I think the critics are incorrect in comparing them to previous two-stroke engines and declaring them as dirty.

Also, there is some confusion about the cleanliness issue becausediesels are what are currently being manufactured. But there is no real data about cleanliness of a gasoline OPOC.

There must be a maximum efficiency curve with these things, as with all ICEs. And since they are so lightweight, small and very powerful, it seems like a natch for hybrid use.

Maybe 200 mpg is too optimistic, but it wouldn't surprise me to hear some huge mileage number in some article in the not-too-distant future.
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Re: EcoMotors OPOC Engine, 100 mpg?

Unread postby Subjectivist » Tue 29 Oct 2013, 21:13:51

Rune wrote:
I first read about this engine here on PO.com years ago. Lately, I have looking at old subjects to see whatever became of them.

Well, the OPOC engine is scheduled to begin production in China in 2014. Seems like everything is beginning production in 2014.

When I first read about EcoMotors OPOC engine, I thought, "Hmmm... this should be a reality in just a few years. It's incredible how long you have to wait for things. Even things that don't seem all that difficult to produce.

Strangely, this sort of design was first invented in the 1920s by Robert Bourke.


I vaguely remember reading about this on here years ago, do you have a link for the thread where you found it so I can reread it? TIA!
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Re: EcoMotors OPOC Engine, 100 mpg?

Unread postby Rune » Tue 29 Oct 2013, 22:21:51

Subjectivist wrote:
Rune wrote:
I first read about this engine here on PO.com years ago. Lately, I have looking at old subjects to see whatever became of them.

Well, the OPOC engine is scheduled to begin production in China in 2014. Seems like everything is beginning production in 2014.

When I first read about EcoMotors OPOC engine, I thought, "Hmmm... this should be a reality in just a few years. It's incredible how long you have to wait for things. Even things that don't seem all that difficult to produce.

Strangely, this sort of design was first invented in the 1920s by Robert Bourke.


I vaguely remember reading about this on here years ago, do you have a link for the thread where you found it so I can reread it? TIA!


I searched, before I posted the OP, and couldn't find the original. But I am sure it was here that I saw something. Probably in 2009 or thereabouts.
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Re: EcoMotors OPOC Engine, 100 mpg?

Unread postby rollin » Wed 30 Oct 2013, 11:33:24

Looks like a great engineering improvement on some old technology. If it is 50% more efficient than the typical ICE engine it will move the average mpg up to 35 to 40 mpg, a significant change. Would like to see some actual run data and pollution data.

This will pretty much be overtaken by the new technology solar cars. Look up Stella solar car and team Eindhoven. Might be nice to have a small motor-generator OPOC add on for very long range applications and low light running.
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Re: EcoMotors OPOC Engine, 100 mpg?

Unread postby Rune » Wed 30 Oct 2013, 11:56:53

Let me break this terrible news to you gently, Rollin...

I'm very sorry, but you're never going to get 375 hp out of solar car.
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Re: EcoMotors OPOC Engine, 100 mpg?

Unread postby Tanada » Wed 30 Oct 2013, 12:30:14

Is this the thread you guys are looking for?
topic68812.html
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Re: EcoMotors OPOC Engine, 100 mpg?

Unread postby Rune » Wed 30 Oct 2013, 13:01:24

Tanada wrote:Is this the thread you guys are looking for?
topic68812.html


No, but that one looks interesting for generating electricity directly from an ICE process:

YouTube

I wonder how that kind of concept would work in a hybrid powertrain? Seems awfully efficient, small and simple.
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