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Geothermal Power Technology

Discussions of conventional and alternative energy production technologies.

Re: Geothermal Technology

Unread postby Graeme » Sun 05 May 2013, 18:33:55

Company studies Saskatchewan’s geothermal potential

A Saskatoon company is planning on using funding to study Saskatchewan’s geothermal potential and have a plant producing green energy in the near future.

Natural Resources Canada and SaskPower intend on contributing $2.2 million to Saskatoon’s DEEP Earth Energy Production Corp. (DEEP) for a study on the economic and technical viability of geothermal energy in southeast Saskatchewan.

DEEP intends to pursue a five megawatt (MW) binary geothermal power plant that would be located near Estevan and would generate power from a hot aquifer located 3 km under the surface.


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Re: Geothermal Technology

Unread postby Graeme » Mon 10 Jun 2013, 17:12:16

Asia Pacific in line to lead geothermal boom

More than 4 GW of geothermal power capacity are expected to come online worldwide between now and 2018, according to a new report.
The study by Navigant Research reveals that at the moment there are 56 projects in either active drilling or construction stages and all are in the US, the Philippines and Indonesia.

And Mackinnon Lawrence, principal research analyst with Navigant, says that the 4 GW figure could be just the tip of the iceberg: “This total includes only projects in advanced stages of development. A significant, though mostly unconfirmed, amount of capacity remains locked up in early-stage projects. As a number of these projects are further developed and their resource potential confirmed, the long-term pipeline – 2017 and later – is expected to expand proportionally.”

Navigant states that although the US leads all regions with the largest number of projects in the pipeline, the Asia Pacific has the most reported capacity under development, with a reported 7.4 GW currently in the pipeline, representing 40 percent of the global capacity under development.

Latin America and Africa account for a combined 3.8 GW of additional capacity under development, equal to 20 percent of the global pipeline.


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Re: Geothermal Technology

Unread postby Graeme » Thu 20 Jun 2013, 18:56:17

This is interesting because India could use the same technology as Australia.

Tata Power, Geodynamics commission 1 MW geothermal plant in Australia

Strengthening its overseas footprint, Tata PowerBSE -1.94 % along with Geodynamics have commissioned a 1 MW geothermal plant in Australia.

Tata Power has a minority stake in Australia-based Geodynamics, a leading player in Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) technology.

In a statement, Tata Power said it has successfully commissioned 1 MW geothermal pilot plant in Australia.

"The commissioning of the 1 MW geothermal pilot plant is a significant milestone for the project and with this we plan to strengthen our footprint in the international markets," Tata Power Managing Director Anil Sardana said.

He noted that the company aims to have 20-25 per cent of generation portfolio from clean energy.

Geodynamics has geothermal exploration interests in three Australian states including the license for exploring 2,000 square kilometre of area in the Cooper Basin.

According to the statement, Geodynamics' tenements in the Cooper Basin contain the hottest granites on earth and are estimated to provide a thermal resource equivalent of 50 billion barrels of oil.


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Re: Geothermal Technology

Unread postby Graeme » Thu 27 Jun 2013, 16:45:32

A Whole New Way of Thinking About Geothermal

Geothermal is rebranding itself.

“Since the first geothermal project in 1905 in Italy, the industry has always positioned itself as baseload and crafted power purchase agreements to maximize that one attribute,” said Paul Thomsen, Ormat Technologies' Policy and Business Director, at a kickoff press conference for the Geothermal Energy Association National Geothermal Summit. “Geothermal shouldn’t be defined by one specific attribute.”

Ormat’s (NYSE:ORA) technology can offer automatic grid control. “It provides inertia, dispatchability, voltage regulation, and reactive power, and can be ramped up and down very quickly,” Thomsen said.

The need for geothermal as a baseload service is growing, Thomsen said. Which technologies can replace the coal plants being retired and nuclear plants going out of service? According to Thomsen, geothermal, hydro and natural gas are the most likely candidates.

But the need for ancillary services to integrate variable renewables like solar and wind is a whole new opportunity, he added. The price of the natural gas that is now often used for grid-firming services is likely to rise, and even if it doesn’t, the pipelines to deliver it are filling, necessitating the construction of costly new infrastructure, he explained.

“Today, the system is not flexible or robust enough to handle large penetrations of variable generation without significant, incremental system expenses,” according to The Value of Geothermal Energy Generation Attributes, a February 2013 study from Aspen Environmental Group.

But the study also found that “improvements in geothermal generation technology currently allow geothermal projects to be designed to meet the needs of today. For example, geothermal projects can ramp up and ramp down electricity generation output quickly so geothermal projects can provide flexibility and ancillary services.”


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Re: Geothermal Technology

Unread postby Graeme » Tue 16 Jul 2013, 17:51:32

Is Fracking for Enhanced Geothermal Systems the Same as Fracking for Natural Gas?

The U.S. geothermal industry recently scored a big win when its first enhanced geothermal system (EGS) project went online in April. ORMAT was able to stimulate a previously unproductive well at its Desert Peak project with EGS technology — injecting fluid into a well to reopen cracks and create a resource reservoir — and found an additional 1.2 megawatts (MW) of capacity. Renewable energy experts applauded the project, dubbing it a "game-changer" and a "shining moment" for the industry.

Though the project represents a breakthrough for EGS technology and the geothermal industry in general, EGS has come under fire, with opponents accusing it as being just as dangerous as oil or natural gas hydraulic stimulation, commonly known as fracking. While traditional geothermal energy is viewed as clean renewable energy, could EGS technology, with its similar "fracking methodology," coupled with its rocky past, come under the same intensive scrutiny as natural gas fracking?


According to Hollett, the fundamental difference between natural gas fracking and EGS fracking is the injection process. The oil and gas industry injects water and a proppant (a mix of sand and chemicals), at a very high pressure of around 9,000 psi or more, which breaks though the rock and holds the cracks open; otherwise they would close when the fluid stops flowing.

EGS, however, uses water, and sometimes acid, to shear the rock and cause a "slip." "You're trying to make two rock faces slide past each other slightly, which creates a little bit more space between them," said Lauren Boyd, EGS program manager at the DOE. This is where fractures or weaknesses in the rock likely existed already and were plugged by mineral deposits over time. Boyd compared the process to putting an ice cube in a glass of hot liquid: "cracks will form where there are existing deformities in the ice, which is similar to what happens in the subsurface with closed fractures," she said.

As for long-term effects, "we are talking about very small fractures very deep in the earth — there is really little or negligible long-term impact there," said Hollett.


Since many believe EGS technology to be similar to natural gas fracking, the same concerns about leakage, spills and resulting groundwater and soil contamination exist for both technologies. After all, according to Popular Mechanics, in the past two years alone, natural gas fracking has caused numerous surface spills including several projects that have contaminated groundwater.

AltaRock plans to combat these problems at the Newberry project by using a multizone stimulation process. Water is injected into a single well at a pressure of about 2,000 psi to stimulate cracks in the rock, which eventually spider out to create a "zone." Once a zone is complete, pressure is dropped to 1,000 psi and a diverter made of biodegradable plastic (similar to plastic developed that allows water bottles to biodegrade in landfills) is injected into the well to "gum up" the cracks, according to Stowe. Pressure is then increased to 2,000 psi to start a new fracture zone, and then a new batch of diverter is made to plug up holes at hotter temperatures. The process repeats until all zones are created, and water flow is then stopped to allow the well to heat up. It takes about one week for the diverter to break down into water and CO2, which is eventually used to generate power once the plant is built, said Stowe.

According to several experts, many of the issues related to natural gas fracking can be prevented with the same type of proper protocol and procedures in use at the Newberry project. For example, in 2011 Chesapeake Energy reportedly lost control of a well in Pennsylvania. The well cracked, spilled and contaminated a nearby stream - this could have been prevented by using stronger cement and casings to ensure an impermeable seal.


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Re: Geothermal Technology

Unread postby Graeme » Fri 19 Jul 2013, 17:39:19

Geothermal Beating Coal Lures Enel From Tuscan Geysers

Enel Green Power SpA (EGPW), which operates the plant, says its experience will give the unit of Italy’s largest utility an edge as it spends 900 million euros ($1.2 billion) in four years to take its technology from Turkey to Peru. Researcher Frost & Sullivan Inc. expects the global market to grow fivefold to $5.89 billion in the seven years through 2017 as governments cut green subsidies and seek alternatives to wind and solar.

“A lot of people can do solar or wind, but geothermal is quite complex,” Enel Green Power Chief Executive Officer Francesco Starace said in an interview. “The fact that we’re already ahead of others is an advantage. It’s a good hedge against risks for us.”

The most common form of geothermal power costs about $64.20 a megawatt-hour, according to Bloomberg New Energy Finance, below the $78.30 for coal, $82.61 for onshore wind turbines and $142.68 for traditional solar panels.

Worldwide geothermal capacity will probably double by 2030, with the pace of growth accelerating after 2020 as government policies change to promote investment, according to a New Energy Finance report in June. The rising price of electricity and the low cost of geothermal compared with other renewables will make it increasingly attractive, BNEF said.


Globally, 13.2 gigawatts of geothermal projects are in the pipeline, with Israeli developer Ormat Industries (ORMT) Ltd. leading the way, followed by France’s GDF Suez (GSZ) SA and Supreme Energy of Indonesia, according to BNEF


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Re: Geothermal Technology

Unread postby Graeme » Mon 29 Jul 2013, 15:07:56

Fracking Could Help Geothermal Become a Power Player

Here's another use for fracking: expanding access to hot rocks deep beneath Earth’s surface for energy production. In April Ormat Technologies hooked up the first such project—known in the lingo as an enhanced geothermal system, or EGS—to the nation's electric grid near Reno, Nev.

"The big prize is EGS," enthuses Douglas Hollett, director of the Geothermal Technologies Office at the U.S. Department of Energy (DoE). "The key is learning how to do it in a reliable way, in a responsible way."

By some estimates, the U.S. could tap as much as 2,000 times the nation’s current annual energy use of roughly 100 exajoules (an exajoule equals a quintillion, or 1018 joules) via enhanced geothermal technologies. With respect to electricity, the DoE concludes at least 500 gigawatts of electric capacity could be harvested from such EGS systems. Even better, hot rocks underlie every part of the country and the rest of the world.


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Re: Geothermal Technology

Unread postby Graeme » Tue 30 Jul 2013, 18:26:27

Romancing the Stone: Geothermal’s Path to Promise

With our total energy consumption in the United States hovering around 100 EJ per year, this is enough carbon-free energy to last for 2,800 years. Yet even with this much potential, the country remains at a staggeringly low 0.05 EJ of annual geothermal energy, with low market growth and no unified expansion plan. However, before we bet our clean energy future on deep hot rocks, the geothermal industry must deliver on technology critical for balancing the risks and driving up the returns.


One potential solution is to lower the cost of drilling. But cutting the cost of drilling in half would only decrease the cost of a fully installed well by around 25 percent. Another emerging solution, however, is to circumvent nonessential drilling altogether. This is accomplished with hydraulic stimulations.

While often compared to the controversial practice of hydraulic fracturing, geothermal stimulations are actually quite different. The objective is not to break open the rock and let trapped hydrocarbons flow, but rather simply to apply sufficient pressure to cause naturally occurring fractures to shift or shear, opening up small channels for water to contact the rock. Geothermal stimulations do not use the harmful chemicals or proppants typically associated with fracking, but instead rely on the injection of pure water.

The greatest attribute of stimulation technology, however, is the ability to repower geothermal reservoirs without risking the cost of a well. Rather than sinking capital into a brand new hole, one that may or may not pan out, stimulation technology can be used to add as much as 100 percent more power to an existing production well. Since the capacity of geothermal plants naturally declines over time as the rock cools and water is withdrawn, 3 gigawatts of geothermal capacity in the U.S. can immediately be turned on without drilling a single new well or building a single new power plant. Half of this potential power is already contracted for purchase by the electric utilities, making it an attractive development opportunity.


However, with a bit of work and a renewed sense of urgency, the geothermal industry can rise to the occasion and deliver an attractive geothermal solution that is not only clean and sustainable, but quite possibly may be the most economically competitive option.


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Re: Geothermal Technology

Unread postby Graeme » Sun 11 Aug 2013, 18:03:23

Kenya, Tanzania in partnership to exploit geothermal energy

Kenya plans to partner with Tanzania in production of geothermal power in efforts to increase energy production in the East African region.

A delegation of senior government officials and members of Tanzania’s parliamentary Committee on Energy and Mining has been on a one-week experiential visit on geothermal development in Kenya with the aim of understanding capacity building, licensing and how to attract investors for the partnership.

Tanzania, which has the longest rift stretch in Eastern Africa, has about 52 identified sites with a geothermal potential of 650MW that have not been fully exploited.

Speaking to the media at the Menengai Geothermal development, the chairman of Tanzania’s parliamentary committee on energy and mining Victor Mwambalaswa noted that geothermal power production in Kenya has been successful in the past four years and added that the same could be replicated in Tanzania to help in faster development of the resource.


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Re: Geothermal Technology

Unread postby Graeme » Tue 13 Aug 2013, 20:15:27

INTERIOR DEPARTMENT ANNOUNCEMENT WILL HELP TO ADVANCE GEOTHERMAL

In response to Secretary of the Interior Sally Jewell’s keynote address at the National Clean Energy Summit, the Geothermal Energy Association (GEA) has released the following statement from GEA Executive Director Karl Gawell:

“We applaud Secretary Jewell for the announcement today reaffirming the Administration’s commitment to approve 20,000 megawatts of renewable energy production on public lands by 2020. With roughly one-half of the geothermal power produced today located on federal public lands, it is important for the Department of Interior to maintain a priority for leasing and permitting new geothermal power projects.

Today’s announcement will move forward two geothermal areas in Southern California, establishing a new area in the West Chocolate Mountains and approving a new 40 MW power plant in Mono County. It has been estimated that together these federal lands could add 190MW of new geothermal capacity, and for comparison purposes that would produce the equivalent power of over 1,000 MW of solar photovoltaics. If the full capacity expected at these sites is developed, it would mean over 1,200 construction and manufacturing jobs on an annual basis, and approximately 325 full-time permanent jobs in Southern California.

There is strong interest in geothermal development in this area, with several companies recently permitting or building new power plants. We expect as California moves forward to increase its commitment to a carbon-free power system, geothermal power will grow in importance because it can provide the firm or flexible power needed to maintain system reliability, achieve climate goals, and do so with low integration costs.”


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Re: Geothermal Technology

Unread postby Graeme » Wed 04 Sep 2013, 18:59:46

Global Market for Geothermal Continues Upswing

The Geothermal Energy Association today released a new report showing continued strong growth signals in the international market for geothermal power. The report, 2013 Geothermal Power: International Market Overview, identifies 70 countries moving forward with nearly 700 geothermal power projects.

"The number of geothermal projects continues to grow as more and more countries recognize the potential economic and environmental benefits that geothermal power can bring," commented Karl Gawell, Executive Director of GEA.

"There are so many projects moving forward that just a year or two ago were ideas on paper. This demonstrates how quickly the geothermal industry is growing internationally," noted Ben Matek, the report's author.

Some of the report highlights are:

By the end of 2013 the global geothermal market is expected to operate 12,000 MW of geothermal capacity on-line.

There are 11,766 MW of new capacity in early stages of development or under construction in 70 countries and territories around the world. Additionally, developers are actively engaged with and exploring 27 GW (Gigawatts) of geothermal resource globally that could potentially develop into power plants over the next decade.

This year some of the first demonstration Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) projects provided electricity to grids in Australia and the United States .

Counties such as Uganda , France , Tanzania , Chile , and Rwanda have geothermal projects under construction or in the latter stages of development and will have their first operational geothermal power plants within the next few years.


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Re: Geothermal Technology

Unread postby Graeme » Tue 08 Oct 2013, 20:39:55

Geodynamics completes geothermal power trial, targets commercial development

Geodynamics has successfully completed the 1 Megawatt equivalent Habanero Pilot Plant Trial in South Australia
Geodynamics (ASX: GDY) has successfully completed the 1 Megawatt equivalent Habanero Pilot Plant Trial in South Australia and will now focus on developing a firm proposal for development of an initial commercial plant.

This includes establishing a range of development options for the supply of electric power or industrial heat to identified local customers.

These proposals will be used to engage with identified customers to secure off-take agreements and to progress discussions with funding partners to secure financing of the next development stage.

Habanero Trial

The Habanero Pilot Plant operated for 160 days following commissioning on 30 April 2013 and performed better than expected.

Maximum sustained closed loop flow rates of 19 kilograms per second were achieved during reliability trial runs, above the expected maximum performance indicated by previous performance of Habanero 1 as an injection well and system modelling.

A new maximum well-head temperature was achieved at Habanero 4 of 215°C; at the time of completing the trial the well-head temperature at Habanero 4 was still slowly rising after 160 days of production.

The plant demonstrated better than expected reliability and system stability; an extended continuous production run in excess of 50 days was achieved.


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Re: Geothermal Technology

Unread postby Graeme » Wed 09 Oct 2013, 14:40:04

New Zealand Opens ‘World’s Largest’ Binary Geothermal Power Plant

New Zealand has commissioned its newest renewable power plant, Mighty River Power’s Ngatamariki Geothermal Power Station, near Taupo on the country’s North Island.

The 100MW plant – the world’s largest of its kind, and the NZ gentailer’s third geothermal project since 2008 – has been dubbed “a significant strategic milestone” by the company, as well as an “important renaissance” for geothermal.

Mighty River Power chair, Joan Withers, described geothermal projects as inherently complex, capital intensive, and reliant on high levels of commitment, capability and partnership. She said the company had spent more than a decade building partnerships on the Ngatamariki resource, and over and $75 million in exploration before they knew they had a project.

“Our commitment of nearly half a billion dollars of capital to this project was only confirmed after satisfying ourselves on each of these fronts – and the long-term sustainability of the resource and returns to our investors,” Withers said.


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Re: Geothermal Technology

Unread postby Graeme » Sun 20 Oct 2013, 02:25:31

The Winning Combination For Electricity Generation – Geothermal-CSP Hybrids

It is being emphasized by various feasibility studies and demonstrated operations at running geothermal power plant sites that the electricity generation shall soon have geothermal-CSP HYBRID power plants as the major contributors. Currently such Hybrid systems are predominantly operating in USA like Oregon Demonstration Plant, Utah Power Plant and NREL project. US Department of Energy is providing financial support for these operations and the outcome is very encouraging. The major benefits that are currently being investigated as achievable by these Geothermal-CSP hybrid systems are:CSP-parabolic

These Hybrid plants reduce risk because CSP can offset lack of initial geothermal resource productivity. Further by correctly optimizing the date and size of CSP array installation the NPV of the project can be improved. This implies that CSP could lower generation costs if it reduces risk & financing costs.

CSP can bring geothermal plant output and conversion efficiency to design levels and above. CSP impact on plant output increases as production fluid temperature decreases from design value.

Flexibility of evaluating Cost and performance of CSP vs. drilling of makeup wells over the life of geothermal plant.

CSP can improve NPV when PPA (Power Purchase Agreement) penalties might be imposed. The hybrid plant can improve project NPV when used to avoid penalties associated with low power output caused by decreased geothermal resource productivity. Time of day pricing scenarios can produce more favorable hybrid plant economics as the CSP would enhance output of geothermal power plant at peak afternoon load.


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Re: Geothermal Technology

Unread postby Graeme » Sat 26 Oct 2013, 15:32:31

Unearth The Buried Technology – Geo Pressured Geothermal Resources

During mid-1970s the US Department of Energy (DOE) established a geopressured-geothermal energy program in line with development of alternative energy resources. This was done in view of America’s increasing dependence on imported fossil fuel energy which was highlighted in the early 1970's as manifested through long lines at gas stations and limited amounts of fuel that could be purchased. As taken directly from the document by Chacko and others (1998), the goals of this program were "to define the extent of the geopressured reservoirs, determine the technical feasibility of reservoir development including downhole, surface and disposal technologies, establish the economics of production, identify and mitigate adverse environmental impacts, identify and resolve legal and institutional barriers and determine the viability of commercial exploitation of this resource.

Extensive work was carried out and numerous wells were investigated for various reservoir and resource potential, including those wells that various oil and gas companies made available for testing. The original concept as defined in the DOE document was to tap into three forms of energy within the region: the heat brought to the surface in the produced hot water (thermal energy); burning any entrained natural gas on site for electricity production (chemical energy); and using the high brine flow rates (>20,000 bbl/day) and the high well head pressure (mechanical energy) to generate electricity.

As a result, a hybrid geopressured geothermal power plant in the U.S., Pleasant Bayou in Brazoria County, Texas, generated electricity from the geo-fluid and separated the natural gas to test the production of electricity from combustion in an on-site hybrid power system. The binary power plant with a design output of 905 KW (541 KW from ORC turbine, 650 KW from gas engine and subtracting an operational load of 286 KW) was operated between September 1989 and May 1990. The plant operated at only 10,000 bbl of water per day with small volumes of gas flow.


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Re: Geothermal Technology

Unread postby Graeme » Sat 02 Nov 2013, 15:56:34

http://trender-greenenergyliving.com/myblog/item/18-build-confidence-in-geothermal-hybrids-by-peer-review

The geothermal hybrid technology is not receiving the attention of engineers, technologists and investors in proportion with the benefits that it may deliver. There can be lot of reasons or may be some vested interests of some specific sectors of economy for this less than adequate interest in the technology, but one thing is for sure that this resource is indefinitely available and researchers have adequately demonstrated the potential of geothermal hybrid systems to be a reliable and major source of green energy supply.

In order to cater for lack of information availability, some information has been collected from various parts of the world and is being presented here to enhance the confidence of the concerned energy sector designers and decision makers in the Geothermal Hybrid Systems. The two categories that are being cited here are:

Geothermal – CSP / PV Hybrids
Geothermal – Well Head Applications (Gas / Oil Well fluids co-produced)


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Re: Geothermal Technology

Unread postby Graeme » Mon 04 Nov 2013, 18:37:40

Geothermal Visual: Project Cost and Risk Profile at Various Stages of Development

he graph below comes from “Geothermal Handbook: Planning and Financing Power Generation,” World Bank, 2012. Authors Magnus Gehringer and Victor Loksha write: “To better understand the nature of the risks that are specific to geothermal power, it is helpful to consider the project cost and risk profile through the various stages of project development."


Image

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Re: Geothermal Technology

Unread postby Graeme » Wed 06 Nov 2013, 15:30:57

If We Can Bury Carbon Dioxide, Why Not Use It to Make Electricity?

Researchers might have found a way to economically capture carbon dioxide from power plants and permanently store it underground. The idea is to turn carbon dioxide storage sites into geothermal power plants.

If it works, the technology would provide both the electricity needed to pump carbon dioxide underground and a source of revenue to offset the high cost of capturing carbon dioxide at power plants, compressing it, and shipping it to storage sites.


The new technology would use carbon dioxide instead of water. This approach has several potential advantages. By eliminating the need for water, it increases the prospects for geothermal projects in dry areas. And computer simulations show that CO2 could produce twice the electricity from a given area that water produces, says Martin Saar, a professor of geology and geophysics at the University of Minnesota. Saar is cofounder of Heat Mining, a company that plans to test this technology in a small power plant that it will build next year.

CO2 would generate more electricity than water would in a geothermal plant largely because carbon dioxide can move much more quickly through porous rock than water can. What’s more, as it heats up, it has a much stronger tendency to rise toward the surface than water does. As a result, it might be possible to eliminate the pumps that consume large amounts of power in conventional geothermal plants. The gas turbines that would be used are also more efficient than the steam turbines found in many geothermal plants.

These factors could make it possible to generate power profitably even in areas that have been considered impractical for geothermal plants because the underground rocks weren’t believed to be hot enough.


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Re: Geothermal Technology

Unread postby Graeme » Thu 07 Nov 2013, 21:34:01

New Report Highlights the Power of Geothermal

The Geothermal Energy Association (GEA) and Geothermal Resources Council (GRC) have released a new joint report, “The Values of Geothermal Energy: A Discussion of the Benefits of Geothermal Power Provides to the Future of U.S. Power System“. The report addresses the role geothermal energy can play in states with Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS) or Renewable Electricity Standards (RES) who are considering the full value of the power sources they use.

The Value of Geothermal ReportThe report was prepared by Ben Matek, GEA’s Industry Analyst, and Brian Schmidt, Librarian, GRC, and documents the many benefits of geothermal power.


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Re: Geothermal Technology

Unread postby Graeme » Thu 12 Dec 2013, 16:52:11

Can we turn unwanted carbon dioxide into electricity?

Researchers are developing a new kind of geothermal power plant that will lock away unwanted carbon dioxide (CO2) underground—and use it as a tool to boost electric power generation by at least 10 times compared to existing geothermal energy approaches.

The technology to implement this design already exists in different industries, so the researchers are optimistic that their new approach could expand the use of geothermal energy in the U.S. far beyond the handful of states that can take advantage of it now.

At the American Geophysical Union meeting on Friday, Dec. 13, the research team debuted an expanded version of the design, along with a computer animated movie that merges advances in science with design and cognitive learning techniques to explain the role that energy technologies can have in addressing climate change.

The new power plant design resembles a cross between a typical geothermal power plant and the Large Hadron Collider: It features a series of concentric rings of horizontal wells deep underground. Inside those rings, CO2, nitrogen and water circulate separately to draw heat from below ground up to the surface, where the heat can be used to turn turbines and generate electricity.


phys.org
Human history becomes more and more a race between education and catastrophe. H. G. Wells.
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