Peak Oil is You

Donate Bitcoins ;-) or Paypal :-)

Page added on March 29, 2016

Bookmark and Share

World Water Scarcity: Conservation and Desalination



Apart from the global overpopulation problem, water scarcity is as announced by the World Economic Forum in January 2015 : “The water crisis is the number one global risk based on impact to society as a measure of devastation”. The UN defines water stress when an area’s annual water supplies drop below 1700 cubic meters per person. When it is below 1000 cubic meters it has water scarcity. It is estimated that 10% of the world’s population does not have access to safe drinking water. This will increase as the world’s population is fast growing. The global demand for fresh water is rising by 640 billion cubic meters a year. A UNESCO report said that the world’s shortage of freshwater will rise to 2000 billion cubic meter by 2025. UN warns that if we continue our current trajectory, we will only have 60% of the water we need in 2030.

Where is this water going to come from? The worse hit areas are in the semi arid areas of Asia, Middle East and North Africa. An IAEA study showed that 2.3 billion people ( 1/3 of world’s population) live in water stressed areas, and 1.7 billion of them have less than 1000 cubic meter of drinking water per year. By 2025 this number could rise to 3.5 billion.

Such water scarcity is extremely worrying as it has great effect on the sustainability of the economic development of our world. As water is indispensable in all industries – agriculture, mining, energy production, etc as well as in human well being.

To put a human face on these statistics. One cubic meter is 1000 liters. A person everyday drinks about 4 liters. But for agriculture to produce the food we eat, a person needs 2000 liters a day. So water scarcity of 1000 cubic meters translates to 2740 liters/day person. On the whole 70% of this goes to agriculture, More than 20% for industry and this does not leave much for personal use.

The fundamental reason of water scarcity in China is the fact that though China has 21% of the world’s population, it has only 7% of the world’s freshwater supplies. While 80% of rainfall and snow melt occurs in the South, only 20% of moisture occur in the mostly desert regions of the North. North China is particularly dry. The average annual rainfall of Beijing, for example, is only 57 cm per year. ( 4.8 cm per month) Therefore the The South-North Water Transfer Project is bringing water from the Yangtze river, whose water come from ice melt of the Himalayas, to the North. Demand is fast outstripping supply as already the consumption levels are 70% higher than in 2012. It is projected that by 2020 water demand will reach 670 billion cubic meters a year while the resources are dwindling with time.

According to state media reports, before the arrival of infusions from the South-North Water Diversion Project Beijing’s annual per-capita water volume was just 100 cubic meters, 1.25% of the world’s average level. With the water from the south, that figure will go up to 150 cubic meters per person ( 411 liters/day). The average personal residential use of water is 86 liters/day compared to UK with 150 and US 560 liters/day.

Air pollution in China is a well known problem. While this results in acid rain, not many are aware that water scarcity and water pollution pose a greater threat to china’s thirst wellbeing, as well as for food security, energy use, urbanization, modernization and overall economic development.

However, adding to water scarcity is the nation wide water pollution problem. The Chinese government reported that nearly 60 percent of China’s groundwater is polluted. with 35% of water so low quality that it is not fit for industry, agriculture or human consumption. Yet it is used. There are reports that 10% of the rice produced is contaminated with cadmium.


We should concentrate on more efficient use of existing resources:
* Better water sustainable management.
* Pollution control.
* Water reclamation.
* Reducing leakage of agriculture irrigation.
* Collection of rainwater on rooftops and streets.
* Recyling of urban residential waste. This is an imperative for the future. Many countries are experimenting with this problem, The top 5 wastewater treatment plants are:
-USA. Stickney Metropolitan Water Reclamation District of Greater
Chicago produces 5.45 million cubic meters/day, serving
2.4 million people. With an annual budget of $450 million,
it comes to $0.22/cubic meters. This is about 1/2 to
1/3 of the cost of desalination ( see section on Desalination)
-USA Boston 4.8 million cubic meters/day
-USA Detroit 3.48 million cubic meters/day
-China. Shanghai 2.0 million cubic meters/day
-Mexico. Atotonilco plant 2.0 million cubic meters/day.
* Increase the price of water. This has negative effects such as
driving away local industrial developments.
* Upgrading storm water systems.


As world’s glaciers are melting fast, the drying of aquifers through overpumping and pollution of rivers, the world does not have many options left.

there are basically 2 principles

* Reverse Osmosis – RO
Sea water is forced across a semi-permeable membrane by applying high pressure with electric pumps. The water diffuses through the membrane while the salts are left behind. This process is electricity intensive, around 3-8 kWh/cubic meter ( = one ton) of water produced. This accounts for 60% of the world’s capacity in 2011
Pumping seawater to pressures of more than 70 kg/ per square cm takes less energy than boiling it—but it is still expensive.

There are new technologies coming on line which are more efficient than standard RO and hence reduce energy cost:
1) Use of nanotechnoloy in the form of graphene membrane will save cost and produce greater efficiency.
2) Use of nanotubes through the membrane. An electric charge at the nanotube mouth repels positively charged salt ions. The uncharged water molecules slip through with little friction, reducing pumping pressure
3) Water molecules pass through channels made of aquaponne proteins that efficiently conduct water in and out of living cells. A positive charge will repel salt molecules near each channels center. Repelling salt.

* Multi-Flash Distillation (MFD) and Multi-Effect distillation(MED)
It is a brute force method needing much energy. This is a simple distillation process where sea water is heated and distilled. It is capable of using waste heat from power plants. This process requires 10 kWh/cubic meter.

Desalination is a great solution for the residential drinking usage problem. But is now becoming widely used for agriculture and industrial uses. However it is energy, mostly electricity, intensive and is therefore an expensive business Both in the capital cost and in the running cost. It is about two to three times as expensive as treating rainwater and waste water.

It energy costs are around 3-10 kWh per cubic meter. But that depends on some variables such as distance transferred of sea water and distance traveled to pump fresh water to the cities. In Israel, for example, 3.5 kWh is needed for electricity of desalination – 1.3 kWh to pump seawater to the plant and 2.2 kWh for the RO desalination process. At the present price of electricity at $0.12/kWh, 3.5 kWh comes to $0.42 /cubic meters. This ia about twice the cost of waste treatment plants. For Multi FlashDistillation systems the cost is even more.

According to International Desalination Association ( IDA), which is world’s most reputable authority on desalination. We get the following figures: By 2013 there are are altogether more than 17,000 desalination plants in the world. The global capacity commissioned as of 2013 is more than 80 million cubic meters per day. So far, water produced is more than 66.5 million cubic meters per day. Most of this goes to industry such as agriculture, electricity generation power plants, refining, oil and gas, mining for coal and metals etc. There are more than 300 million people who rely on desalination for whole or part of their daily use.

The break down by country is :
Country – Commissioned seawater desalination capacity (m³/d)
Saudi Arabia – 9,170,391
UAE – 8,381,299
Spain – 3,781,314
Kuwait – 2,586,761
Algeria – 2,364,055
Australia – 1,823,154
Qatar – 1,780,708
Israel – 1,532,723
China – 1,494,198
Libya – 1,048,424
Total = 30 million cubic meters/day

However, if we look at only the largest plants, the figure are roughly half that given by IDA. Of course, the difference comes from small units scattered in the countries.


Desalination plants operate in more than 120 countries in the world, including Saudi Arabia, Oman, United Arab Emirates, Spain, Cyprus, Malta, Gibraltar, Cape Verde, Portugal, Greece, Italy, India, China, Japan, and Australia.

Many are just coming on line. The largest are the following:

In Ras Al Khair. it uses a hybrid of RO and MSF technology with a gigantic capacity of 1.025 million cubic meters per day. The construction cost was also a huge $7.2 billion.
Yet another plant is in plan in Rabigh by the Red sea that will have a capacity to make 0.6 million cubic meters.

Capacity 4.6 million cubic meters/day. Construction cost $2.7 billion. It is actively pursuing the use of solar energy.

With its long standing drought, it generates combined 1.45 million cubic meters/day with 6 plants using RO technology and some renewable energy from wind. In total, allowing for small plants, the capacity is around 2.2 million cubic meters/day

It has 40 years of history in desalination and is actively selling its expertise around the world. It has 900 small desalination plants producing a total of 1.5 million cubic meters/day. In project is a plan to produce 1.7 million cubic meters/day, using where possible renewable energy

Currently production is 0.75 million cubic meters/day. It is building a 3 million cubic meters/day RO plant to supply Beijing by 2020. The construction plant will cost $1.1 billion . But the pipeline to Beijing will cost an additional $1.6 billion.

Sorek was built in 2013 with a output capacity of 0.627 million cubic meters per day. By 2016, some 50 percent of the country’s water is expected to come from desalination. It uses highly efficient much improved RO membranes so it saves energy. Construction cost: $400 million.

Has a large desalination plant using RO producing 0.5 million cubic meters/day.

In Carlsbad, San Diego, California To open in 2016 using RO. Will produce 0.19 million cubic meters per day at a capital cost of $ 1 billion.


In China, about 400 cities face serious water shortage problems. It has 112 seawater desalination plants in 2014, which could produce 0.93 million cubic meters/day, according to the State Oceanic Administration. The government aims to quadruple its seawater desalination capacity to 3.6 million cubic meters/day by 2020.

Key industrial sectors such as thermal/nuclear power plants, steel and metal production plants, or centralized industrial parks take up more than 90% of the overall desalinated water in China

A 100,000 cubic meter/day seawater RO plant supplied by Abengoa of Spain started operating early in 2013 at Qingdao in Shandong province. Another project is for a 330,000 cubic meter/day plant near Daya Bay.

A 50,000 cubic meter/day Aqualyng plant was completed in October 2011 at Caofeidian on Bohai Bay in Hebei province, and a second stage doubled this in 2012. The Hong Kong based Beijing Enterprises Water Group (BEWG) with Aqualyng is building a 1 million cubic meter/day RO plant at Caofeidian for RMB 7 billion($ 1.06 billion) to supply Beijing through a 270 km pipeline by 2019, providing water for 1/3 of its residents. A 3 million cubic meter/day plant is planned to expand this to supply the capital. The pipeline, itself a major part of the project, will cost about RMB 10 billion($ 1.5 billion), and supply desalinated water at RMB 8 ($ 1.22) /cubic meter.

In March 2013 the National Development and Reform Commission announced new plans for seawater desalination, including for the cities of Shenzhen and Zhoushan, Luxixiang Island in Zhejiang Province, Binhai New Area in Tianjin, Bohai New Area in Hebei, and several industrial parks and companies. The cost is likely to be some RMB 21 billion ($3.2 billion). China aims to produce 2.2 million cubic meter/day of desalinated water by 2015, more than three times the 2011 level. More than half of the freshwater is channelled to islands and more than 15% of water delivered to coastal factories will come from the sea by 2015, according to the plan. This plan will have an investment cost around $21 billion RMB ( $3.35 billion).

A 300,000 cubic meter/day seawater desalination plant at Tianjin is under construction and will be the first zero-liquid discharge (ZLD) plant in the world. The freshwater is due to supply petrochemical plants from 2017.


We point out here a fast growing resource – nuclear desalination- which has high potentials that will last throughout the 21st century. Its advantage is it does not emit Green House Gases GHG. And its price is very competitive with water generated from other fuels – especially coal.

The affordability question all boils down to the cost of energy. Since coal power stations produce too much GHG and are out of favor. China is turning to nuclear power stations and there is much research on the project of building 50 thorium molten salt reactors which are safer and economical than standard plutonium reactors.

Large-scale deployment of nuclear desalination on a commercial basis will depend primarily on economic factors. Indicative costs are US$ 70-90 cents per cubic meter, much the same as fossil fuel plants in the same areas.

China is looking at the feasibility of a nuclear seawater desalination plant in the Yantai area of Shandong Peninsula, producing 80,000-160,000 cubic meter/day by MED ( Multi-Effect Distillation) process, using a 200 MWt NHR-200 reactor.

Following are just some typical values.

coal $4 billion 400,000 $3 (RO) 0 6 million tons
natural gas $3 billion 400,000 $7.30 0 3 million tons

Wind $6 billion 45,000 $12.50 0 carbon credit

nuclear $3 billion 400,000 $0.5-1.0 (RO) 700 MWe carbon credit
$1.5 (MED)
A= Nature of plant. Capacity 1100 MWe
B= Approximate cost of plant
C= Water produced in cubic meters/day
D= Water price / cubic meters including cost of fuel
E= Additional energy output
F= Yearly GHG emission

As can be seen from the table. nuclear desalination is very price competitive as well as having advantages of not using fossil fuel.


For cogeneration we can use power stations fueled by thermal power plants or nuclear reactors

Lack of freshwater along the many coastal cities of China makes it very suitable for the installation of small and medium sized reactors for cogeneration. The hot water from the final cooling system is used to drive turbines for electricity generation. The low pressure steam from the turbines is then used for desalination. The beauty of the cogeneration setup is when the grid is busy, reactor is used for generating electricity. When the grid demand is low at night, it switches to desalination. so there is no waste energy

An IAEA preliminary feasibility study on nuclear desalination in Algeria was published in 2015 for Skikda on the Mediterranean coast, using cogeneration. The nuclear energy option was very competitive compared with fossil fuels.
The feasibility of integrated cogeneration nuclear desalination plants has been proven with over 150 reactor-years of experience, chiefly in Kazakhstan, India and Japan.
The BN-350 fast reactor at Aktau, successfully supplied up to 135 MWe of electric power while producing 80,000 cubic meter/day of potable water over some 27 years, about 60% of its power being used for heat and desalination. It established the feasibility and reliability of such cogeneration plants. (In fact, oil/gas boilers were used in conjunction with it, and total desalination capacity through ten MED units was 120,000 cubic meters/day.)
some 10 desalination facilities linked to pressurized water reactors operating for electricity production yield some 14,000 cubic meter/day of potable water, and over 100 reactor-years of experience have accrued.

It has been engaged in desalination research since the 1970s. In 2002 a demonstration plant coupled to twin 170 MWe nuclear power reactors (PHWR) was set up at the Madras Atomic Power Station, Kalpakkam. This hybrid Nuclear Desalination Demonstration Project (NDDP) comprises a reverse osmosis (RO) unit with 1800 cubic meters/day capacity and a multi-stage flash (MSF) plant unit of 4500 cubic meter/day costing about 25% more. This is the largest nuclear desalination plant based on hybrid MSF-RO technology using low-pressure steam and seawater from a nuclear power station. They incur a 4 MWe loss in power from the plant.
A low temperature (LTE) nuclear desalination plant uses waste heat from the nuclear research reactor at Trombay has operated since about 2004 to supply make-up water in the reactor.
In 2010 commissioned a 4800 cubic meter/day MED desalination plant, coupled to the Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP, a 125 MWe PHWR) though in 2014. It has been operating a 454 cubic meter/day RO plant for its own cooling.
General Nuclear Power (CGN) has commissioned a 10,080 cubic meter/day seawater desalination plant using waste heat to desalinate and provide cooling water at its new Hongyanhe project at Dalian in the northeast Liaoning province.
* Much relevant experience comes from nuclear plants in Russia, Eastern Europe and Canada where district heating is a by-product.

As the global population is fast growing, water scarcity is becoming more and more acute. How will 9 billion people in 2050 manage with so little water which is already present with us today? Conservation, in particular recycling of urban waste water is imperative. Desalination is expensive and energy intensive. But more countries are now building large desalination plants not just for drinking water but for irrigation in agriculture and for industrial uses like mining for coal which is water intensive. In China, pollution control is number one priority. Both in air pollution leading to acid rain, and pollution in the water system – dumping of waste in rivers for example. Nuclear cogeneration of fresh water using improved new RO technique is for our future. However, we must not forget that the world’s energy resources are NOT limitless.

27 Comments on "World Water Scarcity: Conservation and Desalination"

  1. Hello on Tue, 29th Mar 2016 6:31 am 

    When will the effort finally go to reducing population instead of squeezing more resources from the earth?

    Is humanity really that stupid? It seems like.

  2. makati1 on Tue, 29th Mar 2016 7:06 am 

    Desalinization ends when the oil stops.

    Life ends when potable water stops.

    Pass the popcorn.

  3. Davy on Tue, 29th Mar 2016 7:13 am 

    This article pretty much points to regions and nations at the end of the line. It also points to diminishing returns. If countries are to the point of relying on desalinization that spells doom because energy intensity is set to drop markedly. Population growth is close to a brick wall for multiple reasons and water is a central one. Climate change will only make water management harder because of extremes.

  4. Practicalmaina on Tue, 29th Mar 2016 7:40 am 

    Makati desalination with solar thermal is pretty basic tech, also they just came up with a more efficient way to separate out salts using much less power.
    O rockman, these geologist tend to disagree with your statement about fracking disposal wells not being a significant factor in increased quakes.

  5. Davy on Tue, 29th Mar 2016 8:07 am 

    “desalination with solar thermal is pretty basic tech” Basically expensive and prohibitive at the scale needed and in time required to manage the current shortfall. Put some reality into your practical.

  6. Kenz300 on Tue, 29th Mar 2016 8:27 am 

    Too many people……….create too much pollution and demand too many resources….

    Oil, coal, natural gas and nuclear power plants all use huge quantities of water to generate electricity.

    Wind and solar — NOT SO MUCH……….

    One more reason to transition to safer, cleaner and cheaper alternative energy sources.

    100% electric transportation and 100% solar by 2030

  7. dave thompson on Tue, 29th Mar 2016 8:58 am 

    Water and capitalism = commodification, depletion and collapse.

  8. joe on Tue, 29th Mar 2016 9:06 am 

    Genesis wrote a song like that

  9. penury on Tue, 29th Mar 2016 9:33 am 

    I am sorry to report that tech (either high or low) cannot save humanity, you can cry,you can pray (or prey) all you want but, unless humans can achieve a 180 degree change in thought and deed the end is cast in stone and clearly seen from here. You want to stop refugees? Stop bombing their countries. Running low on resources? Stop breeding.

  10. Practicalmaina on Tue, 29th Mar 2016 10:17 am 

    It won’t be doable on a scale for industrial agriculture, but you can get drinking water very easily with a sheet of clear plastic

  11. makati1 on Tue, 29th Mar 2016 10:17 am 

    Penury, denial is easier than facing reality. Some on here still believe that tech will save them. They never think thru how that will be possible. Maybe because, deep down, they know it is all bullshit. Feel good now, for tomorrow you die, or something like that. LOL

  12. makati1 on Tue, 29th Mar 2016 10:27 am 

    Practical, take time to think about your assertions and how they will work out in the new world of ‘without’. Difficult to live on a gallon of water a day when your food requires multiples more to exist and feed you. You cannot water fields with salt water.

    Do you know how much water it takes to get a pound of wheat? And don’t even think about meat, especially beef. I suggest you do some research on water requirements for crops.

    Here is a start:

    “Sweet potatoes also take less water, using 46 gal./lb., while unprocessed corn requires 146 gal./lb.”

    If you lived on corn, it would take more than 50,000 gallons of water to grow a year’s supply. If you ate 8oz of beef per day, it would take about 350,000 gallons for a years supply. What you drink is literally a drop in the bucket of your real water needs.

  13. practicalMaina on Tue, 29th Mar 2016 10:29 am
    this is gonna get interesting 🙂

  14. practicalMaina on Tue, 29th Mar 2016 10:33 am 

    You water fields with rain Makati, get away from short root hybrid crops, grow things close together so less evap, Americans love of beef is a large part of many problems. Buried drip line irrigation is much much more efficient than the center post set ups that are currently draining the countrys fresh water supplies. Buckwheat and Hemp, expensive organic specialty foods that are also very tolerant of adverse soil and weather. They should be as common as corn is today, as they were when this country was founded.

  15. practicalMaina on Tue, 29th Mar 2016 10:39 am 

    Thank you for the stat about sweet potatoes, I grow potatoes but want to try to get a small crop of sweet potatoes, the growing season here is usually a little 2 short, but this may be the year. I do not know the stats on it but I have always had success with squash with no additional water, I am not sure if it is because it is a large plant and therefore larger roots, or the ground covering ability of it to prevent evap…

  16. practicalMaina on Tue, 29th Mar 2016 10:58 am 

    “A Rhodium report released in February, for example, found that the four largest American coal miners by output, Peabody Energy, Arch Coal, Cloud Peak Energy and Alpha Natural Resources, which account for nearly half of US production, were worth a combined $34 billion in 2011.

    Today they are worth just $150 million, which is less than the value of the online marketplace Etsy, which is worth on the order of about $900 million.”
    These guys are worst at business than Trump!
    150 million in value and billions in liabilities when one stops to consider the massive amount of pension healthcare and mine closing cost they will almost surely try to screw everyone on.

  17. Lawfish1964 on Tue, 29th Mar 2016 12:44 pm 

    People are only going to live where water falls out of the sky in the future. Eventually, the desert southwest will go back to what it always was – a desert. It’s like Sam Kinison used to say, “It occurred to us that there wouldn’t be world hunger if you people would live where the WATER is!!” I wouldn’t live in the southwest US if you gave me the house and land.

  18. Dredd on Tue, 29th Mar 2016 1:05 pm 

    The rivers are becoming exhausted in some places, but not in others (Zone AJ, Quadrant SE, Sub-quadrant NW).

  19. Apneaman on Tue, 29th Mar 2016 1:21 pm 

    Suicide rate of Indian farmers rise as country faces urgent water crisis

    “Bone-dry India’s water crisis seems to bringing the 2015 blockbuster film “Mad Max” to life. Apart from a deteriorating quality of life, countless diseases and loss of economic opportunities, India’s lack of water is also causing a plethora of social ills.

    Two successive years of droughts have resulted in India’s water crisis worsening by the minute, with a whopping 75.8 million Indians — five percent of the country’s population — currently lacking access to clean water.

    Here’s another horrifying fact — almost all of India’s water is contaminated by sewage, which means those cut off from clean water have two options: purchase water at the high price of 72 cents for 50 litres; or use supplies contaminated with sewage and chemicals.”

  20. Apneaman on Tue, 29th Mar 2016 1:24 pm 

    North Koreans warned to prepare for ‘arduous march’ – metaphor for devastating famine

    “Last year, North Korea was hit by its worst drought in a century, resulting in extensive damage to agriculture.

    The official Korean Central News Agency said the drought has caused about 30pc of its rice paddies to dry up. Rice plants normally need to be partially submerged in water during the early summer.

    “Water level of reservoirs stands at the lowest, while rivers and streams (are) getting dry,” it said in a report.

    An official from South Korea’s Unification Ministry said precipitation in North Korea was abnormally low in May.”

  21. Apneaman on Tue, 29th Mar 2016 2:30 pm 

    Saudi land purchases fuel debate over US water rights

    “SAN DIEGO (AP) — Saudi Arabia’s largest dairy company will soon be unable to farm alfalfa in its own parched country to feed its 170,000 cows. So it’s turning to an unlikely place to grow the water-chugging crop — the drought-stricken American Southwest.”

  22. practicalMaina on Tue, 29th Mar 2016 2:58 pm 

    They should get a “special price” (10x the current value) because we know they wont be responsible with our resources because they are not with their own.
    Talk about fuel miles, my cow milk comes from a cow that is fed only the finest alfalfa from the other side of the world.

  23. makati1 on Tue, 29th Mar 2016 9:03 pm 

    Those who live in marginal rain areas today (most of the big continents) will not live there tomorrow. Climates are changing. Has anyone in North America noticed the huge changes in the jet stream that controls much of your weather? The frequency of ‘polar vortex’ giving you arctic weather more often? How about those hurricanes that now invade NYC? All from climate changes that are only beginning.

    NAH! Who cares about some wind. The price of oil is more important. Or the latest wardrobe malfunction on some bimbo on the Idiot Tube.

    Food security is an illusion for the spoiled American consumer. It is a daily fact for most of the non-Western world.

  24. twocats on Tue, 29th Mar 2016 11:01 pm 

    In the article the word nuclear is used 23 times. Only Kenz300 really called it out that this idea of using nuclear to produce water is insane, since nuclear requires water inputs. What the WROWI for nuclear desalination? And the woman who wrote the article GIOIETTA KUO is a total crackpot from nowhere China who thinks that “of all the alternatives nuclear has the most future”. Totally worthless article.

  25. Anonymous on Wed, 30th Mar 2016 2:56 am 

    Yea, I caught the ‘nuclear desalination is very price competitive’ line. RoFL! Compared to what? I am hard to pressed to think of a bigger black hole to throw money into than nuclear power. Maybe the uS military. The writer however,figures its slam dunk.

    Other sloppy writing. Research into a fleet of 50 thorium reactors. How is that different into research to build one? You figure out how to build one, not fifty at once. And besides, the number of thorium reactors is exactly zero. Saying you plan to research how to build fifty doesn’t make them real, or even much sense when you think about it. If you dont know how to make one, you wont be able to build the other 49 no matter how good your ‘plan’ is.

  26. Dooma on Wed, 30th Mar 2016 6:29 am 

    your popcorn has made me mighty thirsty mak, pass the real liquid gold please?

  27. Kenz300 on Wed, 30th Mar 2016 8:52 am 

    The solution is to use less water……….desalination is not the answer…… the worlds ever growing population is not sustainable…… adding 80 million more people to the planet every year requires more and more resources…

    Nuclear energy is poisoning the planet…………

    5 Years After Fukushima, ‘No End in Sight’ to Ecological Fallout

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *