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The 5 mass extinction events that shaped the history of Earth — and the 6th that’s happening now

The 5 mass extinction events that shaped the history of Earth — and the 6th that’s happening now thumbnail

For the last 10,000 years, Earth has been in the midst of yet another extinction event that is rapidly removing animals from our planet.

Scientists define a mass extinction as around three-quarters of all species dying out over a short geological time, which is anything less than 2.8 million years, according to The Conversation. Right now, humans find themselves at the beginning of the latest mass extinction, which is moving much faster than any of the others. Since 1970, the populations of vertebrate species have declined by an average of 68%, and currently more than 35,000 species are considered to be threatened with extinction, according to the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). During the 20th century alone, as many as 543 land vertebrates became extinct, according to a research article in the journal PNAS.

Are humans to blame?

Ever since the beginning of the pollutant-pumping industrial revolution in 1760, humans have been the main contributor to Earth’s current environmental crisis. From greenhouse gas emissions and ozone depletion to deforestation, plastic pile-up and the illegal animal trade, humans have actively stripped the world of some species and threatened many more.

There are those who argue that climate change and the extinction of animal species are a natural part of life, and in some ways that’s true. After all, the first five mass extinctions occurred without the presence of humans. However, the difference is the speed at which these mass extinctions happen.

Fossil records don’t just tell us what creatures existed before us, but also how long a species can naturally survive before becoming extinct without human interference. This is referred to as the background rate, and it is equal to around one species extinction per 1 million species per year. Currently, because of human activity, the actual background rate is tens of thousands of times higher, meaning species are becoming extinct much faster than they should be. Studies have found that some species lost from Earth would have continued to survive for 800 to 10,000 years without the interference of human activities, according to a study published in the journal Science Advances.

Pandemic perspective

Never before has the world been able — if not forced — to take a step back from normal life and give nature the breathing room it needs. 2020’s lockdowns have led to a 17% global decrease in carbon emissions and a 20% fall in nitrogen oxide levels, according to NASA. Waterways cleared up, and animals were seen venturing into cities and towns around the world. While it seems like a wonderful revival for the planet, it’s a temporary one as human civilization returns to normal and extinctions return to their previous rate.

Ecotourism is an industry that fuels conservation efforts worldwide, but it’s been on the verge of collapse since global travel restrictions were imposed. Without the income from tourists, conservationists are having trouble protecting vulnerable species from poaching, which during the pandemic has been on the rise, The New York Times reported. Rhinos in Botswana, wild cats in South America and tigers in India have all been targeted over the last year.

The 5 mass extinctions


Ordovician-Silurian extinction: ~ 440 million years ago

Species made extinct: 85%

By the end of the Ordovician Period the seafloor was teeming with shelled creatures such as trilobites.  (Image credit: Alamy)

The first mass extinction on Earth occurred in a period when organisms such as corals and shelled brachiopods filled the world’s shallow waters but hadn’t yet ventured onto land. Life itself was beginning to spread and diversify, having first emerged around 3.7 billion years ago. But about 440 million years ago, a climatic shift caused sea temperatures to change, and the majority of life in the ocean died.

At the end of the Ordovician period, a rapid onset of mass glaciation covered the southern supercontinent, Gondwana. Glaciation on this scale locked away high percentages of the world’s water and dramatically lowered global sea levels, which stripped away vital habitats from many species, destroying food chains and decreasing reproductive success, according to a study published in the journal Oceanology.

It is not known exactly what triggered these events. One theory is  that the cooling process may have been caused by the formation of the North American Appalachian Mountains, according to Ohio State news. Large-scale erosion of these mountainous silicate rocks is associated with the removal of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.

Not all scientists agree with this, however. Alternative theories suggest that toxic metal may have dissolved into ocean waters during a period of oxygen depletion, wiping out marine life, according to National Geographic. Other scientists suggest that a gamma-ray burst from a supernova ripped an enormous hole in the ozone layer, allowing deadly ultraviolet radiation to kill life below, according to APS News, and another theory suggests that volcanism was the cause, according to a study published in the journal Geology.


Late Devonian extinction: ~ 365 million years ago

Species made extinct: 75%

Dunkleosteus chasing fish

Dunkleosteus were one of the giants of the sea before a mass extinction killed them off. (Image credit: Alamy)

Often referred to as the “age of fish,” the Devonian period saw the rise and fall of many prehistoric marine species. Although by this time animals had begun to evolve on land, the majority of life swam through the oceans. That was until vascular plants, such as trees and flowers, likely caused a second mass extinction, according to a 1995 study published in the journal GSA Today.

As plants evolved roots, they inadvertently transformed the land they lived on, turning rock and rubble into soil, according to the BBC. This nutrient-rich soil then ran into the world’s oceans, causing algae to bloom on an enormous scale. These blooms essentially created giant “dead zones,” which are areas where algae strips oxygen from the water, suffocating marine life and wreaking havoc on marine food chains. Species that were unable to adapt to the decreased oxygen levels and lack of food died.

This theory, however, is debated, and some scientists believe that volcanic eruptions were responsible for the decrease in oxygen levels in the ocean, according to a study in the journal Geology.

One sea monster that was wiped from the world’s oceans was a 33-foot-long (10 meters) armored fish called Dunkleosteus. A fearsome predator, this giant fish had a helmet of bone plates that covered its entire head and created a fang-like cusp on its jaw.


Permian-Triassic extinction: ~ 253 million years ago

Species made extinct: 96% marine life; 70% terrestrial life

Some of the earliest land dinosaurs, such as dimetrodons, were among the first to become extinct.  (Image credit: Alamy)

This extinction event, often referred to as the “Great Dying,” is the largest to ever hit Earth. It wiped out some 90% of all the planet’s species and decimated the reptiles, insects and amphibians that roamed on land. What caused this catastrophic event was a period of rampant volcanism, Live Science previously reported. At the end of the Permian period, the part of the world we now call Siberia erupted in explosive volcanoes. This released a large amount of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, causing a greenhouse effect that heated up the planet. As a result, weather patterns shifted, sea levels rose and acid rain beat down on the land.

In the ocean, the increased levels of carbon dioxide dissolved into the water, poisoning marine life and depriving them of oxygen-rich water, according to the Sam Noble Museum in Oklahoma. At the time, the world consisted of one supercontinent called Pangaea, which some scientists believe contributed to a lack of movement in the world’s oceans, creating a global pool of stagnant water that only perpetuated carbon dioxide accumulation. Rising sea temperatures also reduced oxygen levels in the water, Live Science previously reported.

Corals were a group of marine life forms that were among the worst affected — it took 14 million years for the ocean reefs to rebuild to their former glory.

Death by volcano

How massive eruptions caused the biggest mass extinction on Earth


Triassic-Jurassic extinction: ~ 201 million years ago

Species made extinct: 80%

Tricinosuchus was one of the many species to go extinct at the start of the Jurassic Period.  (Image credit: Alamy )

The Triassic period erupted in new and diverse life, and dinosaurs began to populate the world. Unfortunately, numerous volcanoes also erupted at that time. Although it remains unclear exactly why this fourth mass extinction occurred, scientists think that massive volcanic activity occurred in an area of the world now covered by the Atlantic Ocean, according to MIT News. Similar to the Permian extinction, volcanoes released enormous amounts of carbon dioxide, driving climate change and devastating life on Earth. Global temperatures increased, ice melted, and sea levels rose and acidified. As a result, many marine and land species became extinct; these included large prehistoric crocodiles and some flying pterosaurs.

There are alternative theories explaining this mass extinction, which suggest that rising carbon dioxide levels released trapped methane from permafrost, which would have resulted in a similar series of events, according to Discover magazine.


K-Pg extinction: ~ 66 million years ago

Species made extinct: 75%

All non-avian dinosaurs were killed in the fifth mass extinction.  (Image credit: Getty Images)

The most famous of all the mass extinction events is the Cretaceous-Paleogene extinction — better known as the day the dinosaurs died. The event is sometimes also known as the K-T extinction, and geologists call it the“K-Pg extinction because the letter “C” is shorthand for a previous geological period called the Cambrian.  The “K” is from the German word “Kreide,” which means “Cretaceous.”

Crash-landing into what is today Yucatán, Mexico, an asteroid over 8 miles (13 kilometers) wide plunged into Earth at around 45,000 mph (72,000 km/h). This punched a hole 110 miles (180 km) wide and 12 miles (19 km) deep, called the Chicxulub crater. The impact would have scorched all the land around it within 900 miles (1,450 km) and ended the 180 million-year reign of the dinosaurs on Earth.

What followed the impact were months of blackened skies caused by debris and dust being hurled into the atmosphere, Live Science previously reported. This prevented plants from absorbing sunlight, and they died out en masse and broke down the dinosaurs’ food chains. It also caused global temperatures to plummet, plunging the world into an extended cold winter. Scientists estimate that most extinctions on Earth at the time would have occurred in just months after the impact. However, many species that could fly, burrow or dive to the depths of the oceans survived. For example, the only true descendants of the dinosaurs living today are modern-day birds — more than 10,000 species are thought to have descended from impact survivors.

Deep impact

How an asteroid brought about the end of the world for the dinosaurs


Turning back the clock

Pandas became the poster species for extinction back in 1980s, when there were fewer than 1,114 individuals recorded in China.  (Image credit: Getty)

Humans might be the driving force behind this accelerated extinction event, but we are also the answer to stopping it. The world is awash with scientists, conservationists and environmentalists working in the laboratory, in conservation areas and in political battlegrounds to protect endangered species.

From tackling global pollution emissions in the 2016 Paris Agreement to the U.K.’s Global Resource Initiative that combats deforestation, legislation will always be at the forefront of the fight against mass extinction. In particular, one of the biggest direct threats to endangered life is the illegal animal trade.

In the wake of the current pandemic, wildlife markets have been thrust into the spotlight as not only being environmentally irresponsible, but potentially dangerous to human health through zoonotic diseases — those that jump from animals to humans — such as COVID-19. These markets, trading live exotic animals or products derived from them, are found throughout the world. For example, bear farms in Asia cage 20,000 Asiatic black bears for their bile, resulting in the decline of the wild population, according to Animals Asia.

Lawmakers are tackling these kinds of markets with growing success. In Vietnam, for example, Prime Minister Nguyen Xuân Phúc signed a new directive that bans wildlife imports and closes illegal wildlife markets, according to a report in The Guardian.

New eyes in the sky

One of the best ways to help prevent species from becoming extinct is to monitor their populations and identify any problems before it’s too late to help. Currently camera traps and surveys conducted on foot or from aircraft are the main method of data collection. However, recent research has used a combination of satellite imagery and artificial intelligence to observe animals from space. Using high-resolution aerial photographs of Africa’s grasslands, researchers created an algorithm to sweep over thousands of miles and count every elephant pictured in the blink of an eye.

The technology, however, is still in its infancy and is limited to areas where large animals, such as elephants, aren’t obscured by forest habitats. “The main question here would be the size of the animals and their habitats. We can’t see through clouds, obviously, but also we can’t see through forested areas. Therefore we can’t look for animals that are in dense forest,” Olga Isupova, a computer scientist at the University of Bath and creator of the elephant-tracking AI, told How It Works magazine, a sister publication to Live Science. “If they’re in open areas, then it’s just a question of their size.”

Nevertheless, it has huge potential to advance our ability to monitor species. “We are currently looking at how we can improve the algorithm itself to look specifically for smaller objects. We could also look for those animals who appear in herds,” Isupova said. “For example, with penguin colonies, the model can detect the whole colony and then have an additional algorithm that approximates the count based on the size of the colony. Also, you can look for the footprints of the animals. The animal itself can be quite small, but if there are many of them and they leave lots of footprints after them, we can also try to track that.”

Read More: Elephants counted from space using satellites and AI

satellite image of elephants

An aerial image of Addo Elephant National Park, showing the algorithm counting elephants.  (Image credit: Maxar Technology)

Saved by cloning

Another potential solution to combat extinction could be to clone species. In February 2021, scientists revealed they had successfully cloned a black-footed ferret from an animal that had died more than 30 years ago. Native to North America, these small mammals were thought to be extinct until a small colony was found in the early 1980s, which were entered into a breeding program and reintroduced around the United States.

Due to inbreeding, the population of around 650 ferrets is at risk of extinction once again. This inspired researchers to create a genetic copy from the preserved cell of a wild female, named Willa, who died in the 1980s. The process of cloning was similar to that used to clone Dolly the sheep back in the early 1990s. Scientists hope that after time spent in captivity, cloned members of the species can successfully re-enter the wild, offering a new conservation tool to protect endangered species.

It is legal, scientific and technological advances such as these that will help to conserve Earth’s wildlife and hopefully slow down the sixth mass extinction.

livescience



19 Comments on "The 5 mass extinction events that shaped the history of Earth — and the 6th that’s happening now"

  1. peakyeast on Sat, 22nd May 2021 7:42 am 

    The 6th mass extinction started some 15000 years ago – since then humans has eradicated species after species…

  2. FixYourOwnMessSatanist on Sat, 22nd May 2021 10:25 am 

    I have to assume that everything on the internet is a lie. I have to assume that I am being manipulated and lie to by reptilian/Satanists. I have to assume that the bible is a lie created by reptilian/Satanist to manipulate people.

    I have to assume that this guy is a liar and everyone that is or was popular is one of them reptilians/Satanist: JK, Princess Diana, Trump. Micheal Jackson are reptilian.

    https://www.youtube.com/user/TheJonathankleck

    I have no choice then to let everything collapse and refuse to participate and work with anybody that was or is in position of power. You the reptilians/Satanists control this world, it your responsibility to find a solution to this, it is not the responsibility of the human race to find a solution to this.

    This has been going on for too long, and you deserve death and pain for this. You control this earth while us human are doing the shit and physical tough manual labor to maintain this created civilization. This does not work for us, humans, anymore. Fix this shit, since you are the ones controlling this world, not us humans.

    JFK Junior wore hologram technology

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ltNwelNNZ5I

    Must See newly edited Trumps reptilian mouth 1
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fZMK9I4NXm0

  3. The_Forbin_Project on Sat, 22nd May 2021 11:08 am 

    rubbish article , they for got the 55 million year exstiction

    there were probably others too , we’re still finding out

  4. IAmWaitingForReptilianToDie on Sat, 22nd May 2021 11:40 am 

    I also have to assume to you can manipulate human mind. What we see as a connection to GOD is you reptilians/Satanist pushing ideas into us the human race and me.

    I also think you can cast spell on us. I think you try to cast a spell on me, while I was having my prostate medicine. I was having orgasms over orgasms without ejection.

    Keep fucking with me, I see on this will work out for you.

  5. makati1 on Sat, 22nd May 2021 4:38 pm 

    And life moves on. Mother Nature will just build another ecosystem after we are gone. Some life always survives or we would not be here.

    Only arrogant humans think we are important to life and the planet. We are destroying the ecosystem we depend on for life. Proves how “intelligent” we are not.

  6. Biden's hairplug on Sun, 23rd May 2021 3:18 am 

    This site is a great attractor for all sorts of collapseniks, doomsayers, disaster tourists (“BeerAndPopcorn”), nihilists and what have you.

    Life is eternal.

    Probably.

    At some point a species, humans come to mind, will acquire so much knowledge and power that they will cut of their own throats, ISIS style. With nukes, or some released virus or whatever.

    Great Reset, you say?

    Here is a Great Reset: humans finish themselves off, with technology. Somewhere on Pluto, you have 2 astronauts busy collecting soil samples, when they learn that on Earth, humanity just disappeared and most species with it. Though shit. Nevertheless, somewhere deep in the world’s oceans, some plankton will survive and evolution will start all over again.

    That’s what Jules Verne could have meant with his book “The Eternal Adam”. Or Nietzsche and his “Eternal Return”

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Eternal_Adam

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eternal_return

    The universe: one pulsating process between plankton and divinity… and back. Without end. A closed loop.

    Humanity has been talking about God for thousands of year, have waged wars over him, build giant structures to worship him (her? it?). They have looked for him everywhere, under the bed, behind the clouds, speculated about him, wrote thousands of books about him… but missed the opportunity to see him directly: in the mirror.

    It’s too early to write off humanity now.

    Onwards, towards the Omega Point. We’re not there yet. Humanity and its history is 2-dimensional, but about to become 3-dimensional.

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pierre_Teilhard_de_Chardin

  7. makati1 on Sun, 23rd May 2021 6:14 pm 

    Dreaming again Cloggie/Biden’s? We may have walked on the moon 50 years ago, but we have not been able to go back, or farther, in half a century.

    Why? Hmm? Maybe because we never will. Yes we can send a few expensive toys to Mars to play for a few weeks at best, but it is unlikely we will ever walk there. We are going to destroy ourselves first. There are zero inhabitable places, outside our earth, for light years.

    Tech be damned! It is killing our only home. It is people like you who are demented and always want more tech, not less. Well, “less” is coming. A lot less. Be patient.

  8. The Bastard of The North on Wed, 9th Jun 2021 6:33 am 

    Liquid sharts!!

  9. Old fishy fingers on Sat, 12th Jun 2021 11:00 am 

    It’s time to cook the Jews!

    Get the ovens fired up now for Christ’s sake!!

    Quickly!!

  10. makati1 on Sat, 12th Jun 2021 11:01 am 

    Yes we musk cook the he Jews !

  11. pat on Tue, 15th Jun 2021 10:00 am 

    The end of oil with the world oil shortages is the biggest mass extinction and global collapse. See the biggest ever bull run of OIL will break $200-$250. Just Oil extinction events at global level begin with end of GIANT OIL FIELDS of Saudi Arabia, end of easy, less expensive conventional oil etc. The global as we know IS OVER. Now World must prepare of end of OIL.

  12. pat on Tue, 15th Jun 2021 10:01 am 

    The end of oil with the world oil shortages is the biggest mass extinction and global collapse. See the biggest ever bull run of OIL will break $200 -$250. Just Oil extinction events at global level begjn with end of GIANT OIL FIELDS of Saudi Arabia, end of easy, less expensive conventional oil etc. The global as we know IS OVER. Now World must prepare of end of OIL.

  13. pat on Tue, 15th Jun 2021 10:03 am 

    The end of oil with the world oil shortages is the biggest mass extinction and global collapse. See the biggest ever bull run of OIL will break $200 -$250. Just Oil extinction events at global level begjn with end of GIANT OIL FIELDS of Saudi Arabia, end of easy, less expensive conventional oil etc. The global as we know IS OVER. Now World must prepare of end of OIL.

  14. MASTERMIND on Wed, 16th Jun 2021 5:01 pm 

    200,000 American’s dead from Covid under Dementia Joe!!!

  15. I AM THE MOB on Wed, 16th Jun 2021 6:02 pm 

    Mak

    YOU WERE RIGHT ABOUT EVERYTHING!

    US is total shit show! Worst than 1984.

    Lyin hidin Biden is the final nail!

    Public dumbed down, HARD drugged up, waiting to go back in time!

    The only nice thing left in America is watching the sunrise!

    Hope all is well my friend!

  16. I AM THE MOB on Wed, 16th Jun 2021 6:10 pm 

    CNN/NYT/Faux: The unvaxxed want to wipe Israel off of the map!

  17. makati1 on Wed, 16th Jun 2021 7:10 pm 

    Mob, all is well here. I hope you are managing well there also. I hate being right when it is negative, but the 2020 flu bullshit caught me by surprise. Sigh.

  18. FamousDrScanlon on Wed, 16th Jun 2021 7:12 pm 

    390,000,000 Americans died from reading the word VACCINE.

    They/NWO/DeepState/Evil-Bad-Man’s killer conspiracies strike again.

    The combined death toll from all the interweb’s conspiracy claimers since residential internet service was rolled out in 1995 is 40 billion deaths.

    Everyone on the planet has died 5 times according to the paranoid unemployed American whiteboys conspiracy network.

    Paranoia and Conspiracy Theories – Personality Disorders

    Paranoia and Conspiracy Theories

    “The list of these theories can go on for some time.

    What are the reasons for these beliefs in plots and why do they all involve government cover-ups?

    Psychologists have been speculating for some time about this.

    First, it’s important to say that conspiracies do happen. In fact, there is a kernel of truth or possibility behind all of these theories. Perhaps that is the reason why so many Americans believe in these theories. Given the national feeling of suspicion towards government at this time, it becomes understandable that there would be a tendency to believe in these conspiracies. Whether it’s the damage Richard Nixon did in our ability to trust government or Ronald Reagan’s assertion that “Government is the problem,” or a cultural aspect of American life that has always distrusted authority, we have an immediate tendency to believe that the government is up to no good.

    Then, too, psychopathology is involved in the process of weaving these theories. Psychologists state that those whose personalities tend to be authoritarian are more likely to believe in conspiracies. In need of a sense of control over events, conspiracies provide them with an explanation for those events over which they cannot exert control.

    It is also thought that the process of finding conspiracies behind these events is due to a strong sense of individualism. Individualists, if they feel that their independence is threatened find dark forces behind that are threatening to rob them of their freedom. That is why we hear the anti gun control people state that even having back ground checks would result in the government having lists of gun owners who could then be pursued later on, when the government want to remove those guns. In this, there is a sinister belief that the government is all powerful, all controlling and about to swoop down on all of us in order to enslave the American people. That is quite paranoid thinking.”

    https://www.mentalhelp.net/blogs/paranoia-and-conspiracy-theories/

    Why is it in one breath BIG GOV haters bitch & moan about how the government are a bunch of incompetent fuck-ups & in the next breath the government is all powerful, all controlling like God?

    Don’t lose heart, there’s help for you yet.

    Conspiracy Theory Addiction – Addiction Center

    Conspiracy Theory Addiction

    Conspiracy theories are a popular topic of conversation and research shows that almost half of Americans believe in at least one conspiracy. Studies have also shown that conspiratorial thinking may increase anxiety, distrust, and feelings of losing control. These feelings can often lead to a cycle that results in conspiracy theory addiction.

    Start the road to recovery

    Treatment Center Locator

    “Often, one theory will have accompanying and sometimes contradictory conspiracy theories which can be dangerous if not challenged.”

    Conspiracy theory addiction is a behavioral addiction that can have a hidden impact on the way you perceive events and has been linked to having more negative attitudes. Rather than helping one cope with their negative feelings, the belief in conspiracy theories can create a cycle of distrust and disempowerment. As a person encounters different sources, it is important to be able to analyze the information and distinguish between false theories and real threats.

    People who strongly believe in conspiracy theories and become addicted may experience some of the following:

    *Feeling anxious or fearful for no particular reason.

    *Feeling a loss of control.

    *A need to make sense of complex topics or unrelated events, even with little or no topical knowledge.

    *Low self-esteem.

    *Strong urge to make connections between a series of unrelated events or behaviors.

    *Belief in paranormal explanations for scientific phenomenon.

    *A sense of not belonging or isolation.

    *A great alienation, disengagement, or disaffection from society

    If the presence of the previous feelings and behaviors significantly impact a person’s ability to function in their daily lives, they may have a conspiracy theory addiction.

    https://www.addictioncenter.com/drugs/conspiracy-theory-addiction/

  19. FamousDrScanlon on Wed, 16th Jun 2021 9:29 pm 

    For starters, the humans have caused the SEVENTH 7th mass extinction, not 6th.

    Any science ‘journalist’ worth his salt would know this.

    Newly discovered mass extinction event triggered the dawn of the dinosaurs

    “Huge volcanic eruptions 233 million years ago pumped carbon dioxide, methane and water vapour into the atmosphere. This series of violent explosions, on what we now know as the west coast of Canada, led to massive global warming. Our new research has revealed that this was a planet-changing mass extinction event that killed off many of the dominant tetrapods and heralded the dawn of the dinosaurs.”

    “Following the clues

    This event was first noticed independently back in the 1980s. But it was thought that it was restricted to Europe. First, geologists in Germany, Switzerland and Italy recognised a major turnover among marine faunas about 232 million years ago, termed the Rheingraben event.

    Then in 1986, I recognised this independently as a global-scale turnover among tetrapods and ammonites. But at that time, the age dating was much weaker than now and it was impossible to be sure whether these were both the same event.”

    https://theconversation.com/newly-discovered-mass-extinction-event-triggered-the-dawn-of-the-dinosaurs-146248

    “A team of scientists has concluded that earth experienced a previously underestimated severe mass-extinction event, which occurred about 260 million years ago, raising the total of major mass extinctions in the geologic record to six.”

    https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/09/190909105555.htm

    Paper
    https://advances.sciencemag.org/content/advances/6/38/eaba0099.full.pdf

    There could be others. Mass usually means 75%> of all species extinct. There are plenty of lesser extinction periods that don’t qualify as ‘Mass’, but you probably would not enjoy trying to survive in such an environment, since like all the mass extinctions the lesser extinctions were hot house extinctions – global warming triggered by massive releses of greenhouse gasses via volcanism including the dinosaurs (KT extinction) which had the Deccan traps in India puking out greenhouse gasses bigly.

    There’s a pretty clear hot house extinctions pattern here on planet meat grinder.

    The one major difference is this time a extremely clever & rapacious ape has dug up & burned shit tons of fossil carbon instead of volcanism producing the climate changing green house gasses.

    The other notable difference in regards to human caused species extinctions is only half are attributable to CC. The other half we’ve wiped out via hunting, pollution & human ‘development’ – your house, shopping malls, roads & off roading ‘sports’ etc, etc destroying their habitat.

    Face it, the humans are a mega-cancer.

    All this stuff is not that complicated. The hot house-mass extinction pattern is obvious & the evidence is overwhelming.

    Further denial might be comforting for a few more years, but it’ll cost big time. Not for stopping it via behavioural changes or any of that BS. That was never possible – a progressive fantasy & evolution denial. Nope, the only reason to grow up & give up denial & techno magical thinking is to prepare for battle so to speak while you & yours & your town & nation still have some time & resources. It’s hopeless in the end but the point is to spare your family, friends & neighbours as much suffering as possible & more time alive. Dropping denial & doing something might also delay worst case collapse in your country or region.

    America is the biggest denier nation on earth & most of them are completely consumed with some bizarre rage & hate-fest they call politics. They’ll be going out early & hard.

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