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India, China most vulnerable to joint risks of climate change, air pollution

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India and China are among the world’s top five countries that are most vulnerable to climate change and air pollution with the capacity to deal with the risks, a first of its kind research assessing the combined risks of air pollution and climate change, said on Thursday.

The world’s two fastest developing economies with 2.5 billion plus people have witnessed a spurt in particulate matter induced air pollution levels in the past two decades and have seen high risks due to climate change induced extreme rainfall, frequent cyclones and heat waves in recent past, the study says.

“Deaths resulting from toxic pollution are highest where the distribution of toxic pollution is greatest and, critically, also where the impacts of climate change pose the greatest risk,” the study, Global distribution and coincidence of pollution, climate impacts, and health risk in the Anthropocene, said, in a specific reference to India and China.

For more than 30 years, the scientists on the UN’s Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) have assessed impacts of human induced climate change whereas bodies such as World Health Organisation have focused on health impacts of rising air pollution globally.

Scientists at the University of Notre Dame found a “strong and statistically significant” link between the two environmental hazards and said the countries which are at most risk of climate change are also the countries with highest risks of toxic pollution.

A vital difference between climate change and air pollution is that greenhouse gases that cause global warming are considered non-toxic whereas air pollutants such as particulate matter or nitrogen dioxide are toxic.

“It is not surprising to find that these risks are highly correlated, but this study provides the data and analysis to inform policy, data and analysis that were previously lacking,” associate professor of Political Science at the university Debra Javeline said, in a statement.

To make the study useful for policymakers, the authors ranked 177 countries on “Target”, a measure that combined a country’s climate impact risk, toxic pollution risk and its potential readiness to mitigate these risks. Most countries such as India and China, have high air pollution and green house gas (GHG) emissions. China is the world’s leading total GHG emitter and India is on track to join it at the top and they are two top ranked countries to emit toxic air pollution.

Based on these criteria, the study ranked Singapore, Rwanda, China, India, Solomon Islands, Bhutan, Botswana, Georgia, the Republic of Korea and Thailand as top 10 countries. “The top one-third of countries at risk of toxic pollution and climate impacts represent more than two-thirds of the world’s population, highlighting the magnitude of the problem and unequal distribution of environmental risk,” researchers wrote in the paper published in peer-reviewed scientific journal PLOS One.

Among those countries appearing at the bottom of the list are Equatorial Guinea, Iraq, Jordan, Central African Republic and Venezuela. “These (bottom of the table) nations are most likely to have outstanding governance issues that currently stand in the way of effectively addressing pollution and climate change,” the study said.

On India and China, the two largest countries, together representing over 2.5 billion people, the study said they have relatively high Proportion Mortality ranks — India ranked 5th and China 13th with 23.5% and 17.9% of annual deaths associated with toxic pollution, equalling 2.3 and 1.9 million premature deaths annually, respectively.

The study also pointed out that the two countries have come up with national pollution reduction policies to reduce pollution deaths. In the case of China, it said, its National Plan on Air Pollution led to 40% reduction in pollution levels.

“The improved air quality resulted in significant corresponding reductions in respiratory disease and cardiovascular disease mortality rates,” the study said, adding that there is strong potential for co-benefits from efforts focused on China and India in risk reduction for neighbouring countries and other countries at-risk of climate change more broadly.

Anumita Roy Chowdhary of Centre for Science and Environment said the study interestingly provides broad parameters linking air pollution and climate change and provides insight on how tackling both with singular policy instruments can be co-beneficial. “We know that reducing air pollution helps in managing green house gas emissions and vice-versa. The study, however, analyses the capability of 180 countries to deal with twin environmental problems,” she said.

University’s postdoctoral research associate Drew (Richard) Marcantonio said the idea of ranking (Target) is to highlight where action can be taken to reduce risk to human health and whether it can be done through incentives or sanctions. “A range of measures can be used to promote risk reduction such as trade incentives…, or other policy and regulatory enforcement mechanisms,” the study said, adding that it provides moral reflection to determine what actions should be taken and who should take them.


4 Comments on "India, China most vulnerable to joint risks of climate change, air pollution"

  1. Theedrich on Sun, 25th Jul 2021 12:49 pm 

    There is new information about biowar. Dr. David Martin, CEO of a company that investigates patents worldwide, gave an interview to a German group, Stiftung Corona Auschuss (Corona Foundation Committee), revealing disturbing evidence that the SARS virus complex, of which COVID-19 is a subset, has been synthetically created in order to get people worldwide injected with the known-to-be-harmful  S1 spike protein.  See

    For a written summary in PDF format, see  An excerpt:

    By October 2013, the Wuhan Institute of Virology 1 coronavirus S1 spike protein was described in NIAID’s funded work in China.  This work involved NIAID, USAID, and Peter Daszak, the head of EcoHealth Alliance.  This work, funded under R01AI079231, was pivotal in isolating and manipulating viral fragments selected from sites across China which contained high risk for severe human response.

    By March 2015, both the virulence of the S1 spike protein and the ACE II receptor was known to present a considerable risk to human health.  NIAID, EcoHealth Alliance and numerous researchers lamented the fact that the public was not sufficiently concerned about coronavirus to adequately fund their desired research.

    Dr. Peter Daszak of EcoHealth Alliance offered the following assessment:

    “Daszak reiterated that, until an infectious disease crisis is very real, present, and at an emergency threshold, it is often largely ignored.  To sustain the funding base beyond the crisis, he said, we need to increase public understanding of the need for MCMs [medical countermeasures] such as a pan-influenza or pan-coronavirus vaccine.  A key driver is the media, and the economics follow the hype.  We need to use that hype to our advantage to get to the real issues.  Investors will respond if they see profit at the end of process, Daszak stated.”

    Economics will follow the hype.

    The CDC and NIAID entered into trade among States (including, but not limited to working with University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill) and with foreign nations (specifically, the Wuhan Institute of Virology and the Chinese Academy of Sciences represented by Zheng-Li Shi) through U19AI109761 (Ralph S. Baric), U19AI107810 (Ralph S. Baric), and National Natural Science Foundation of China Award 81290341 (Zheng-Li Shi) et al. 2015-2016. These projects took place during a time when the work being performed was prohibited by the United States National Institutes of Health. …

    And another excerpt:

    By no later than April 11, 2005, Dr. Anthony Fauci was publicly acknowledging the association of SARS with bioterror potential.  Leveraging the fear of the anthrax bioterrorism of 2001, he publicly celebrated the economic boon that domestic terror had directed towards his budget.  He specifically stated that NIAID was actively funding research on a “SARS Chip” DNA microarray to rapidly detect SARS (something that was not made available during the current “pandemic”) and two candidate vaccines focused on the SARS CoV spike protein.  Led by three Chinese researchers under his employment — Zhi-yong Yang, Wing-pui Kong, and Yue Huang — Fauci had at least one DNA vaccine in animal trials by 2004.  This team, part of the Vaccine Research Center at NIAID, was primarily focused on HIV vaccine development but was tasked to identify SARS vaccine candidates as well. Working in collaboration with Sanofi, Scripps Institute, Harvard, MIT and NIH, Dr. Fauci’s decision to unilaterally promote vaccines as a primary intervention for several designated “infectious diseases” precluded proven therapies from being applied to the sick and dying.

    The aim is making vast profits for the pharmaceutical industries (Pfizer, Moderna, et. al.), using the media to hype pandemic fear.  It amounts to criminal conspiracy, racketeering, and collusion.  Dr. Martin also mentions DARPA’s interest, beginning around 2008, in Corona virus as a biological weapon.

    Now that our betters have a “highly malleable bioweapon” (Dr. Martin’s words), we live in an entirely new world.

  2. the MUZZ-19 produces so much spike proteins that it clogs tiny capillaries in the body and brain according to elilte whitey supertard Mike Yeadon on Sun, 25th Jul 2021 2:54 pm 

    congradulations to the following supertards who did not take the kilshot:

    FamousDrScanlon (saline solution, retractable needle – no penetration)

    please feel at ease among friends, we’re all lovers of supreamcist muzzies here

  3. FamousDrScanlon on Sun, 25th Jul 2021 4:19 pm 

    Theedrich, who cares? Even if you could prove an intentional release & all that other bull shit, so what?

    What is y’all truthers 2.0 expectation?

    Will there be a big cheque in your mail box & a thank you note?

    Will they make you mayor or governor?

    Will the perpetrators be forced to go house to house, across the land, groveling on their knee’s while begging for forgiveness?

    So what is it y’all want?

    I’m curious at to what y’alls secret is? What is it that makes you super sleuths – white, male, American, conservative – so much more intelligent & 100 times more perceptive than the rest of us mere mortals?

    Is it steroids? A secret breakfast cereal that’s only sold to super sleuths? Were your parents exposed to uber levels of Gamma radiation resulting is a new class of super intelligent white American conservatives? Did god touch y’all & for reasons only he’ll ever know?

    Whatever the reasons, just know there are millions of us simple folk who are forever grateful y’all are standing on guard for the truth & the little people the world over. Thank y’all so very very much – y’all is heroes.

    It’s funny because even us less intelligent & lowly learned folk guessed they dun it in a lab given how few viruses there are in nature. Totally man made.

    “There are so many viruses on earth that if you laid them end to end, they would stretch 100 million light years — 500 galaxies wide. Bacteriophages, viruses that parasitize bacteria, cause a trillion, trillion infections per second, destroying half the world’s bacteria every 48 hours. And despite that devastation, bacteria outweigh all animals combined on the planet by a factor of 40.”

    – John Green, The Anthropocene Reviewed: Essays on a Human-Centered Planet

    No matter how it got out it’s still the human’s fault because the human thinks it’s not part of the natural world – thinks it’s above all else. Thinks it can fuck with shit consequence free. Think again doomed losers.

    Oh, I just now figured it out! When y’all was born they swaddled you in the American flag – flag of truth – flag of knowledge – flag of exceptionalism and that is why only you white, American, conservative, males posses intellectual superpowers the rest of us do not. Yes that’s the reason y’all know more than scientists & without having to do any of the work, like thousands of hours of reading stupid books & reports.

  4. FamousDrScanlon on Sun, 25th Jul 2021 4:30 pm 

    From the ‘You Can’t Make This Shit Up’ files.

    SEE how dumb & cultist they are.

    I Tried to Make Claims About Election Fraud So Preposterous Trump Fans Wouldn’t Believe Me. It Was Impossible.

    I was acting as Trump and his minions do: free to say anything, no matter how ridiculous, with no basis in observable fact.

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