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The first map of America’s food supply chain is mind-boggling

The first map of America’s food supply chain is mind-boggling thumbnail

My team at the University of Illinois just developed the first high-resolution map of the U.S. food supply chain.

Our map is a comprehensive snapshot of all food flows between counties in the U.S.—grains, fruits and vegetables, animal feed, and processed food items.

To build the map, we brought together information from eight databases, including the Freight Analysis Framework from Oak Ridge National Laboratory, which tracks where items are shipped around the country, and Port Trade data from the U.S. Census Bureau, which shows the international ports through which goods are traded.

We also released this information in a publicly available database.

This map shows how food flows between counties in the U.S. Each line represents the transportation of all food commodities, along transit routes, such as roads or railways. [Image: Environmental Research Letters (2019)]

What does this map reveal?

1. Where your food comes from

Now, residents in each county can see how they are connected to all other counties in the country via food transfers. Overall, there are 9.5 million links between counties on our map.

All Americans, from urban to rural are connected through the food system. Consumers all rely on distant producers, agricultural processing plants, food storage like grain silos and grocery stores, and food transportation systems.

For example, the map shows how a shipment of corn starts at a farm in Illinois, travels to a grain elevator in Iowa before heading to a feedlot in Kansas, and then travels in animal products being sent to grocery stores in Chicago.

2. Where the food hubs are

At over 17 million tons of food, Los Angeles County received more food than any other county in 2012, our study year. It shipped out even more: 22 million tons.

California’s Fresno County and Stanislaus County are the next largest, respectively. In fact, many of the counties that shipped and received the most food were located in California. This is due to the several large urban centers, such as Los Angeles and San Francisco, as well as the productive Central Valley in California.

We also looked for the core counties—the places that are most central to the overall structure of the food supply network. A disruption to any of these counties may have ripple effects for the food supply chain of the entire country.

We did this by looking for counties with the largest number of connections to others, as well as those that score highly in a factor called “betweenness centrality,” a measurement of the places with the largest fraction of the shortest paths.

San Bernardino County led the list, followed again by a number of other California transit hubs. Also on the list are Maricopa County, Arizona; Shelby County, Tennessee; and Harris County, Texas.

However, our estimates are for 2012, an extreme drought year in the Cornbelt. So, in another year, the network may look different. It’s possible that counties within the Cornbelt would show up as more critical in non-drought years. This is something that we hope to dig into in future work.

3. How food travels from place to place

We also looked at how much food is transported between one county and another.

Many of the largest food transport links were within California. This indicates that there is a lot of internal food movement within the state.

One of the largest links is from Niagara County to Erie County in New York. That’s due to the flow of food through an important international overland port with Canada.

Some of the other largest links were inside the counties themselves. This is because of moving food items around for manufacturing within a county—for example, milk gets off a truck at a large depot and is then shipped to a yogurt facility, then the yogurt is moved to a grocery distribution warehouse, all within the same county.

The food supply chain relies on a complex web of interconnected infrastructure. For example, a lot of grain produced throughout the Midwest is transported to the Port of New Orleans for export. This primarily occurs via the waterways of the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers.

The infrastructure along these waterways—such as locks 52 and 53—are critical, but have not been overhauled since their construction in 1929. They represent a serious bottleneck, slowing down innumerable supply chains nationwide, including that of grain. If they were to fail entirely, then commodity transport and supply chains would be completely disrupted.

Railroads are also important for moving grain. Fresh produce, on the other hand, is often moved around the country by refrigerated truck. This is due to the need to keep fresh fruits and vegetables—relatively high value agricultural products—cool until they reach the consumer. In future work, we hope to evaluate the specific infrastructure that is critical to the U.S. food supply chain.

Fast Company

44 Comments on "The first map of America’s food supply chain is mind-boggling"

  1. dave thompson on Sat, 2nd Nov 2019 9:31 am 

    Most Americans have no idea where food comes from and how food gets to the table. Or even just how fragile the whole system is. The assumption being that the food was there yesterday, so it is today and as it will be tomorrow.

  2. FuelShortageComing on Sat, 2nd Nov 2019 9:57 am 

    Fucking hilarious. California is a critical node into US food chain supply.

    California is now a third world state with electricity blackout, homeless, vagrant and mass migration problems.

    As California goes into chaos so will US food supply chain.

  3. Duncan Idaho on Sat, 2nd Nov 2019 10:40 am 

    California has the 5 largest GDP on Earth, larger than the UK or France.
    The US would be even more third world without CA.

  4. Davy on Sat, 2nd Nov 2019 11:29 am 

    California is the root of many of the problems in the US. No wonder normal people are bailing on the shit hole state and everyone else is moving in.

  5. JuanP garbage on Sat, 2nd Nov 2019 11:47 am 

    This is from stupid:

    “Davy said California is the root of many of the problems in the US. No wonder….. “

  6. Ghung on Sat, 2nd Nov 2019 12:39 pm 

    Normal people …………. ?

  7. Davy on Sat, 2nd Nov 2019 12:50 pm 

    Yea, Ghung. There is no normal anymore just degrees of abnormal.

  8. Davy on Sat, 2nd Nov 2019 1:12 pm 

    Just ask me, I am the poster here for abnormal. Ive made a REAL name myself, acting like an abnormal, delusional maniac.

  9. JuanP garbage on Sat, 2nd Nov 2019 4:04 pm 

    This is from stupid:

    “Davy said Yea, Ghung. There is no normal anymore just degrees of abnormal….”

  10. makati1 on Sat, 2nd Nov 2019 6:07 pm 

    Funny, they don’t even mention that about 20% of that food is imported, probably into those same Californication areas. Interesting that their food has to travel thousands of miles to feed the East Coast hordes.

    When the SHTF, and trucking shuts down…

  11. full woke supremacist muzzies jerk maximum newspeak double rainbow all the way so intense whoa it looks like a triple rainbow on Sat, 2nd Nov 2019 7:05 pm 

    Chung I appoint you supertard.
    Muzzie baghdadi is “the believer”
    You’re “the lover” of muzzies.
    Your “the giver” is supertard makati1
    Congrats to all supertards

  12. Theedrich on Sat, 2nd Nov 2019 11:45 pm 

    Talk about Tainter’s collapse-inducing complexity! Tainter, in his book The Collapse of Complex Societies (1990), forecast the inevitable.  Add to this massive, increasingly precarious food-distribution network man’s planetary ecocide and the mammalian extinction by endocrine disruption caused by single-use plastics, not to mention the wildfire-like growth of nuclear weaponry, robotics, the wide-scale mental breakdown of whole populations, and on and on, and one begins to get a glimmer of what awaits us and our much-touted “values.”

    Among other tidbits, the $52 trillion of medical coverage by Fauxcahontas will be unable to sate mankind’s insatiable demands for eternal life.  (Never mind the current $23 trillion U.S. debt.)

    All of this merely scratches the surface of the predicament.  Will-paralyzing sob-stories only make the problem worse.  The days of wine and roses are over.  And not even the Demonic Impeachers will be able to bring them back.

  13. Duncan Idaho on Sun, 3rd Nov 2019 11:05 am 

    “Thanks to Trump’s trade wars, US farm bankruptcies in Sept. soared to 24% — highest level since 2011. Nearly 40% of projected farm profit this year will come from trade aid, disaster assistance, & federal subsidies. Farm aid has now cost more than double the 2009 auto bailout.”

  14. makati1 on Sun, 3rd Nov 2019 4:50 pm 

    Duncan, the US farmer has been dealt a blow twice this year. The Trump tantrum tariffs and then Mother Natures attacks. Too bad! NOT! What goes around, comes around. It is only going to get worse.

    When you try to put your competition (China) out of business with weapons of destruction, you are not a government you are a mafia, and Al Capone is jealous.

    The US cannot compete on a level playing field. It has to cheat and bully. The old, intelligent generation is mostly dead or in retirement and the newbies are too dumbed down, brainwashed and just plain stupid to be able to replace them. Nothing they come up with works.

    This is China’s century.

  15. Full woke supremacist muzzies jerk maximum newspeak double rainbow all the way across the sky so intense whoah it begins to look like a triple rainbow on Sun, 3rd Nov 2019 9:42 pm 

    makati1 on Sun, 3rd Nov 2019 4:50 pm
    Supertard modern farming is highly technical down to anticipation of financial shortfalls. Yeah the yield isn’t great for ethanol but machines are out harvesting day and night. Losing a month maturity for crops doesn’t mean losing everything. Since hybrid corn yields both products for humans and animals consumption.

  16. Theedrich on Mon, 4th Nov 2019 1:33 am 

    Mak has hit the nail on the head.  However brutal China may be, it is dealing realistically with the inflexible laws of history.  Yes, it is polluting like crazy, stealing American intellectual property, developing omnipotent superweapons, and using cruelty of all sorts to claw its way to the top.  And (sob, sniff) it does not seem to care about American “values.”  It is also cunningly allowing underhanded shipments of fentanyl to the narcotics-hungry U.S. and the rest of the West in revenge for the Opium Wars of the nineteenth century.  That is, it is assisting the effeminate genosuicidists of America to complete their self-destruction.

    America destroyed Gaia’s effort in 1939-45 to overcome the anti-evolutionary trajectory of Anglo pomposity.  But when you mess with Gaia, you are doomed, no matter how many myths the media Jews spout.  China is her new and invincible force majeure.

    This is a struggle to the death.  And the average couch potato or video-game player has no idea what is coming.

  17. Goyim Scum on Mon, 4th Nov 2019 3:31 am 

    “He who owns the gold rules.”

    Just have a look at Sheldon Adelson. Every presumptive Republican candidate for president is required to present himself before Shel for inspection and pledge allegiance to Israel.

  18. Davy on Mon, 4th Nov 2019 4:20 am 

    “This is China’s century.”

    Bullshit, China is coming apart at the seems just like the west. This will be “no nations century”. China is a inward looking country in regards to culture. Chinese care about Chinese culture only in regards to what really matters. They may give lip service to others but only China matters. No nation will embrace a nation like that very long.

  19. Davy on Mon, 4th Nov 2019 5:20 am 

    “When will electric aircraft really take off?” aero mag

    “At this point, short to medium range electric flight seems achievable and is on the horizon. This will make a difference — Roei Ganzarski of magniX says that two billion air tickets are sold each year for flights under 500 miles. However, according to the Air Transport Action Group, around 80% of the carbon dioxide emissions from aviation come from flights over 1,500km, so there is a long way to go. It seems likely that hybrid aircraft will be the next step for the industry, rather than fully electric planes. Hybrids could plug the gap until the technological requirements for electric aircraft have been met, as these craft will save on fuel, while still retaining many of the performance benefits of the modern gas turbine or propeller-based engines.”

  20. Davy on Mon, 4th Nov 2019 5:20 am 

    “Japan Must Either Open Up To Foreigners Or Face Economic Collapse” rice farmer commentary

    “A completely wrong-headed assessment from Forbes. We get the conventional arguments about not having enough workers, babies, taxpayers, mindless consumers, and people paying into pension systems, but there’s not a word about how net energy decline inexorably drags economies down. Migrants and immigrants aren’t the answer because increasing the number of humans just decreases the per capita amount of net energy available. In Japan and everywhere else, immigrants, migrants, and foreign workers will — even if welcomed at first — eventually become targets as national economies everywhere continue to tank and the recent arrivals get blamed for problems. – RF”

  21. Antius on Mon, 4th Nov 2019 5:29 am 

    “Japan Must Either Open Up To Foreigners Or Face Economic Collapse”

    Or maybe adopt policies that improve fertility rate. What Japan needs if for Japanese women to have more children. Importing foreigners will only promote civil unrest.

    Japan also needs an energy policy that reduces its dependence on imported fossil fuels without overloading its grid with unreliable intermittent electric power. We all know where that energy needs to come from.

  22. makati1 on Mon, 4th Nov 2019 5:36 am 

    Davy, much as you would like it to be so, China is doing quite well, thank you. You believe too much of the Sinophobe brainwashing you are fed 24/7/365. Just like the Russophobe bullshit you are fed daily. USMSM propaganda.

    Asia is growing. The West is dying. You can deny all you want but the reality will win out. The US is leading the way down the shitter. Soon, it will be obvious to even the most ardent deniers. The pain is only going to get worse. buckle up.

  23. Antius on Mon, 4th Nov 2019 5:49 am 

    I would (reluctantly) agree with Makati. You cannot maintain an expanding economy with a shrinking population.

    The US is run by a pernicious tribe of people that have done everything they can to undermine the white American population. This has ultimately had the effect of destroying their own geopolitical power. They are now throwing tantrums.

    It may be too late to save the west from the tribe. But we have the satisfaction of knowing that this pernicious bunch will burn with us. Asia will not be infiltrated by the tribe.

  24. Davy on Mon, 4th Nov 2019 5:50 am 

    “Davy, much as you would like it to be so, China is doing quite well”

    More binary idealism from makato who wants the world to be about my side is fine your side is failed. In the real world life does not behave this way. Old men going into mental decline tend to grasp on to these things for security.

    China is going down the wrong road and will pay the price. No different than in the west.

  25. Davy on Mon, 4th Nov 2019 5:51 am 

    “Peak Stainless Steel” energy skeptic

    “This study shows that there is a significant risk that stainless steel production will reach its maximum capacity around 2055 because of declining nickel production, though recycling, and use of other alloys on a very small scale can compensate somewhat. The model in this study assumes business as usual for metal production and fossil fuel supplies (though the authors note that energy limitations are likely in the future, which will limit mining). If oil begins to decline within 10 years, as many think, shortages of stainless steel and everything else will happen before 2055.”

  26. Davy on Mon, 4th Nov 2019 5:58 am 

    “I would (reluctantly) agree with Makati. You cannot maintain an expanding economy with a shrinking population.”
    Not only is China overpopulated and increasing concentrated in mega cities but they also are going into demographic decline with an aging population. China has huge problems and is only holding this all together by massive credit creation. This credit creation activity is yielding some of the worst malinvestment in the world including the BRI. As far as decline in the west anti-westerners have that well covered on this forum.

    “The US is run by a pernicious tribe of people that have done everything they can to undermine the white American population.”
    More racist “tribe” stuff from a white whiner. You act like you know the US but you are just another extremist like cloggo who distills the world’s problems down to ethnicity. This is a problem but show some intellectual balance instead of being emotional.

  27. Antius on Mon, 4th Nov 2019 6:01 am 

    Electric aeroplanes will never be more than a niche solution. Batteries simply do not have sufficient energy density to be useful in this way. And short haul flights typically have short turnaround times, rather like buses. That sort of business model doesn’t work well if the plane needs to sit at the airport for several hours recharging.

    There are other options. Aeroplanes could be powered by liquefied natural gas, LPG and maybe even liquid hydrogen. These all have better mass energy density than kerosene. There are hybrid options as well. Planes could carry liquid oxygen as well as fuel, which would reduce the turbine work needed to compress air into the combustion chamber.

    The most likely outcome is for incremental improvement to existing technology. The use of carbon fibres to reduce airframe weight and small improvements in engine efficiency by operating at higher combustion chamber temperatures. Eventually, you may see the use of synthetic fuels, probably blended with kerosene to reduce carbon footprint. Revolutionary solutions tend to appeal to idealistic people, but are seldom the most cost optimum path.

  28. Davy on Mon, 4th Nov 2019 6:04 am 

    “Electric aeroplanes will never be more than a niche solution.”

    True, but as a niche they have great potential with short flights. Considering the need for populations to localize this is important.

  29. Antius on Mon, 4th Nov 2019 6:27 am 

    “More racist “tribe” stuff from a white whiner. You act like you know the US but you are just another extremist like cloggo who distills the world’s problems down to ethnicity. This is a problem but show some intellectual balance instead of being emotional.”

    I certainly don’t know the US as well as you do Davy. Then again, how well do you really ‘know’ Europe and China?

    I am not getting emotional, I am simply describing the situation as I see it. And the way I see it, ethnic divisions tend to divide populations into separate factions that often distrust and hate each other. This reality has been played out enough times in the real world that I am surprised that so many people bother trying to deny it. It isn’t the only problem in the world and I never said it was.

  30. makati1 on Mon, 4th Nov 2019 7:18 am 

    Antius, Davy is an “expert” on everything, by his own declaration. You just have to ignore his ignorance, I do. Like most Amerikans, he has never been closer to China than the junk shelves at Walmart.

    Yes, the Amerikan “melting pot” never melted and never will. The US is a stew of many races and ethnic groups where Caucasians will be the minority, whereas, most Asian countries are not. The Philippines are also many races, but they get along just fine and you never hear of problems between say, Filipinos and say, Nigerians. I cannot recall any race problems in my 12 years here. But then, this is still a real democracy, unlike the US. And no European country came and wiped out most of the indigenous owners like in Amerika.

    “Currently, there are more than 175 ethnolinguistic groups, each with its own language, identity, culture and history.”

    Imagine Amerika if the real owners of the land the Europeans stole were alive today as in the Philippines. Too bad they didn’t kill all of Columbus’ crew and delay the invasion.

  31. Davy on Mon, 4th Nov 2019 7:35 am 

    Antius, please, you are being simpleton like makato. It depends on what subject we are covering. I am fairly good with parts of Europe in detail. As far as China I read everything I can on China economically and environmentally so I know a lot there. I am up on their military too. Other areas I am not going to pretend I know like others do here with the US.

  32. Davy on Mon, 4th Nov 2019 7:42 am 

    IMA, everyone is a simpleton accept for me.

    I’m the greatest and only my opinion matters.


  33. Davy on Mon, 4th Nov 2019 7:44 am 

    BTW, Antius, you have my highest respect in regards to technical discussions. I have saved more of your comments than any other on this forum. You have steered me to many great links. That does not mean I approve of everything you say or do. At the other end is makato with minimal respect just above annoymouse and JuanPee, his stalker boyfriends.

  34. JuanP ID theft on Mon, 4th Nov 2019 7:46 am 

    Speaking of the stalker, lol, stupid is back:

    Davy on Mon, 4th Nov 2019 7:42 am

  35. Davy on Mon, 4th Nov 2019 7:51 am 

    We all know how important it is for everyone to have my approval. Your opinions are invalid unless I agree with them. That’s just the way things are.

  36. FuelShortageComing on Mon, 4th Nov 2019 8:01 am 

    It is over for the Whites, South Korean and Japaneses races. They all seems to want nothing to do with this earth and life in general.

    SOS from Sweden. We need help!!!

    This is what I commented on this video:

    Sweden deserve this. I don’t care about the future of Whites people. I am Whites with green eyes. Whites people are coward. It is too late to save the White race. Typical Whites man asking help from Russian. You don’t need help. Grow some balls build a underground militia and kill you elected and none elected officials. Begging like you do is what weak man do. You are a weak man begging for help on Youtube

  37. JuanP ID theft and & sock on Mon, 4th Nov 2019 8:55 am 

    Folks, juanPee is full stupid today

    full woke full tarded supremacist muzzies jerk maximum newspeak double rainbow all the way across the sky so intense so vivid what does it mean whoa it looks like a triple rainbow said hey yall i just saw supertard big muzzie beard #2…

    Davy said We all know how important it is for everyone to ha.

  38. full woke full tarded supremacist muzzies jerk maximum newspeak double rainbow all the way across the sky so intense whoa it looks like a triple rainbow what does it mean omg on Mon, 4th Nov 2019 9:11 am 

    Davy on Mon, 4th Nov 2019 4:20 am
    Dear supertard I agree china is breaking apart. Silk and road is propaganda that works on alt tard media enthusiasts. A show of force parade violate sun tzu’s stratagem
    Central planning is inferior tactics crafted by inferior control freaks. Pork price went up and desperation turns to dog meat

  39. full woke supremacist muzzies jerk on Mon, 4th Nov 2019 9:40 am 

    Supertards please show me my latest treatise so I can repost

    Danke fuhrers

  40. Davy aka supremacist muzzies jerk on Mon, 4th Nov 2019 10:17 am 

    What a relief to know supertard Davy and supremacist muzzie jerk are in agreement.

  41. REAL Green on Tue, 5th Nov 2019 6:00 am 

    “Inconvenient Truth: Best Way To Help The Environment Is To Avoid Green “Eco-Friendly” Products” zero hedge

    “Make no doubt about it: it’s now trendy to be the most planet-loving, alternative energy supporting, climate changing fighting Captain Planet that you can be. And what would being a friend to environment be without sanctimoniously ridiculing those who disagree with you or aren’t on your level of sustainability? Just ask Greta Thunberg. But, as often happens with virtue signaling, the reality of the matter is far askew from how pretentious environmentalists present it. In fact, RT reports that avoiding all of the “green” eco-friendly products available on the market could be the best way to help the environment…Organic farming actually requires more land than conventional farming because it yields a smaller harvest per crop. The Cranfield University report show that if England and Wales switched to organic farming, they would need five times as much land for agriculture. Shipping would drive carbon costs sky high, despite the benefits of soil and water health improving dramatically without the conventional runoff from regular farming. Lowering emissions, however, would be “impossible without a major shift in diet”…Other renewable energy, like solar, is also not as “green” as it sounds. Solar panel manufacturing is a “toxic mess”, as panels are produced using “carcinogenic, mutagenic heavy metal cadmium and requiring billions of liters of water to manufacture and cool”. Electric vehicles also have a dark side: more energy is consumed in the production of electric cars than of gas cars. Meanwhile, a 2011 study showed that the carbon footprints of both vehicles are “about thee same”. EVs may not produce emissions while driving, but the piece notes what we all know: they are only as green as the electricity that’s used to charge them. Additionally, batteries in EVs are loaded with toxic chemicals, like lithium, copper and cobalt. The mining of these substances is devastating to the environment and batteries need to be disposed of in a way that does not allow them back into the environment. Meanwhile, biomass and biofuels also generate more carbon emissions than fossil fuels to create the same amount of energy. Substances that burn under the guise of “biomass” often can include anything from timber waste to garbage, and can often times litter the atmosphere with pollutants. Even burning clean wood often means cutting down trees. Even the old adage of paper over plastic has its downside. Paper bags generate more air and water pollution than plastic and actually require more energy to recycle. They take up more space in landfills and require more fuel to ship. “Consumers who believe they’re saving the earth by requesting paper bags at the supermarket (and municipalities who think banning plastic is the answer) are sadly misguided,” the piece notes.”

  42. REAL Green on Tue, 5th Nov 2019 6:01 am 

    This goes to the basics of REAL Green and FAKE Green. The issue is not is green doomed to inconsistencies, it is not. The problem is behavior. FAKE Greens want to have affluence and green and it is not possible. FAKE Greens do not want to make tough decisions. Many FAKE Greens are wealthy liberals who want to remain wealthy and virtuous. What is even worse is an extremist liberal who wants affluence for his group at the expense of others. This virtue signaling for FAKE Green reasons is the reason extremist liberals are tearing apart the Green movement. Many FAKE Greens are ok with high populations as long as these populations are sustainably developed in a clean green manner. The truth is without draconian population control any efforts at Green are futile in regards to Green transcendence away from human planetary destruction. The inconvenient reality is unless green efforts are confined to local less affluent living then they are not approaching TRUE Green. Green transcendence is not possible and this is where REAL Green comes in.

    REAL Green acknowledges this and acknowledges this means we are in a carbon trap with path dependencies. No matter how hard FAKE Green Gretas whine you can’t have your cake and eat it. REAL Green acknowledges these catch 22 issues and says go local and less affluent in a way that is relative to your socio-economic situation IOW don’t destroy your relationships and status quo life to go FAKE Green or Extremist Green. Harness and leverage the dirty status quo in Green prepping for the decline process. Unfortunately this is what will REALLY take the world to greener behavior but only after it is too late and nature responds to systematic imbalances. Collapse in place now and beat the rush but do it responsibly. These FAKE Green people are not interested in the truth they are interested in power and wealth transfer to them in a fantasy of virtue signaling. A TRUE Green goes into a collapse of affluence with dignity. He lives without many of the modern conveniences and comforts. REAL Green wants and tries to live strictly local with travel and consumption. He Knows limiting family size is good and instead reaches out to small communities of likeminded people. There may be a time for larger families if a die off arrives early but in the meantime small family units matter both for survivability of the family unit and planetary foot print.

    Where REAL Green comes into the equation is realizing not everyone can go into the very admirable TRUE Green. REAL Green are more carbon trapped and path dependent than TRUE Greens. This is not because of them. A REAL Green person is a TRUE Green wannabe but goes REAL Green because their family and community are not. So, what REAL Green is then is about compromise and acceptance. REAL Green realizes he is trapped and the world is trapped so he does not fight it but instead harnesses this failure with acceptance. Instead he goes forth and makes an effort with life style changes that include behavior and things to get greener now and prepare for a collapse process that at some point will surely accelerate.

  43. REAL Green on Tue, 5th Nov 2019 6:06 am 

    “Enough is Plenty” festa

    “The concept of enough is developed throughout this book. I begin here in this introduction, continue in a chapter of reflection, and then move on to chapters showing how enough is relevant to public policies and personal resources. The approach I take recognises that the practice of enough is not uniform throughout the world; it can take different forms and expressions for individuals and cultures.”

  44. Rik on Sun, 10th Nov 2019 7:09 pm 

    A lot of foods imported into North America (Canada, USA) are poisonous. All Asian foods from China should be boycotted.

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