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Nuclear fusion is ‘a question of when, not if’

Nuclear fusion is ‘a question of when, not if’ thumbnail

The prospects for developing nuclear fusion as a feasible source of energy have significantly improved, say experts.

The UK government has recently announced an investment of £200m to deliver electricity from a fusion reactor by 2040.

Private companies and governments have told the BBC they aim to have demonstration models working within five years.

But huge hurdles remain, say critics.

With the price of wind and solar continuing to drop, experts say these existing renewables might offer a more economical and timely method of tackling climate change and generating energy than an unproven technology like fusion.

Nuclear fusion is an attempt to replicate the processes of the Sun on Earth. It differs significantly from nuclear fission, which has been our only way of getting electricity from atoms since the 1950s.

Fission has proven to be hugely expensive. It generates large amounts of radioactive waste and raises serious concerns about safety and the proliferation of weapons.

So what exactly is fusion?

Fusion is the process that drives our Sun.

Every single second, millions of tonnes of hydrogen atoms crash together in the tremendous temperatures and pressures of our parent star. This forces them to break their atomic bonds and fuse to make the heavier element, helium.

Image copyright ITER
Image caption The giant Iter site in southern France aims to have its first plasma generated in 2025

Natural, solar fusion generates enormous quantities of heat and light.

For decades, researchers have been trying to replicate this process on Earth, or “build the Sun in a box” as one physicist dubbed it. The basic idea is to take a type of hydrogen gas, heat it to more than 100 million degrees until it forms a thin, fragile cloud called a plasma, and then control it with powerful magnets until the atoms fuse and release energy.

Potentially, it can generate power that is low carbon, with much smaller amounts of waste. It also comes without the danger of explosions.

To deliver the fusion concept, countries have focused their energies on a major international co-operative effort called Iter.

Giant step forward or a white elephant?

The Iter project involves 35 countries and, right now, it is constructing a huge test reactor in southern France.

The plan is to have the first plasma generated in 2025. However, getting from this step to producing energy is extremely difficult.

Iter has also been beset by long delays and budget overspend which means it is unlikely to have a demonstration fusion power plant working even by 2050.

“One of the reasons that Iter is late is that it is really, really hard,” said Prof Ian Chapman, chief executive of the UK Atomic Energy Authority.

“What we are doing is fundamentally pushing the barriers of what’s known in the technology world. And of course you reach hurdles and you have to overcome them, which we do all the time and Iter will happen, I am completely convinced of it.”

Image copyright General Fusion
Image caption General Fusion believe their approach to fusion will work within five years

Until Iter is up and running in 2025, the UK based Joint European Torus (Jet) remains the world’s largest fusion experiment.

It has secured EU funding until the end of 2020, but what happens after that, and the participation of the UK in Iter after Brexit remain unclear.

To give some sense of certainty, the UK government recently announced £220m for the conceptual design of a fusion power station by 2040.

Over the next four years, researchers based at Culham in Oxfordshire will develop designs for a fusion power plant called Step or Spherical Tokomak for Energy Production.

How will the UK make fusion work?

The most widely known approach to making fusion happen involves a doughnut shaped vacuum chamber called a Tokomak. Hydrogen gas is heated to 100 million degrees C at which point it become a plasma. Powerful magnets are used to confine and steer the plasma until fusion occurs.

In the UK, researchers have developed a different form of Tokamak, that more resembles an apple core than a doughnut. Called a Spherical Tokamak, it has the advantage of being more compact, potentially allowing future power plants to be located in towns and cities.

“If you look at some of the very big units, the big machines that we are looking at, just finding geographically somewhere to put them is difficult,” said Nanna Heiberg from the UK Atomic Energy Authority.

“What you really want to do is put them close to where the energy is required. And so if you can do them in a much smaller footprint, you can put them closer to the users and you can put more of them around the country for example.”

So where is the excitement about fusion coming from?

While governments are wrestling with Iter, many are also driving ahead with their own national plans. China, India, Russia and the US among others are working on developing commercial reactors.

Image copyright Getty Images
Image caption Building the “sun in a box” has remained outside the grip of scientists for decades

As well as the UK government putting cash in, the European Investment Bank is pumping hundreds of millions of euros into an Italian programme to produce fusion energy by 2050.

But perhaps the major excitement comes from private companies. They are usually smaller, nimbler, and they develop by making mistakes and learning from them quickly.

There are now dozens of them around the world, raising funds and pushing forward often with different approaches to fusion than that seen in Iter and in the UK.

Here’s a brief sample of some different approaches to fusion.

First Light: This company originated in the University of Oxford and was founded specifically to address the urgent need to decarbonise the global energy system. Their idea involves firing a projectile at a target that contains hydrogen atoms. The shockwave from the impact of the projectile creates a shockwave that crushes the fuel and briefly this reaction will produce plasma that is hotter than the sun and denser than lead.

Commonwealth Fusion Systems: A private company created by former Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) staff, CFS has raised significant funding of over $100m. It is focusing on developing a Tokamak system but its key innovation is in superconducting magnets. They hope to build powerful enough magnets so they can build smaller and cheaper Tokomaks to contain the plasmas required to generate fusion.

TAE Technologies: With backing from Google and other high tech investors, this California-based company is using a different mix of fuel to develop smaller, cheaper reactors. They want to use hydrogen and boron as both elements are readily available and non-radioactive. Their prototype is a cylindrical colliding beam fusion reactor (CBFR) that heats hydrogen gas to form two rings of plasma. These are merged and held together with beams of neutral particles to make it hotter and last longer.

US Navy: Worried about how to power their ships in the future, the US Navy has filed a patent for a “plasma compression fusion device”. The patent says that it would use magnetic fields to create “accelerated vibration and/or accelerated spin”. The idea would be to make fusion power reactors small enough to be portable. There’s a lot of scepticism that this approach will work.

‘A ball of liquid metal…’

One of the main challengers with ambitions to make fusion work is a company based in British Columbia, Canada called General Fusion. Their approach, which has gathered a lot of attention and backing from the likes of Amazon’s Jeff Bezos, combines cutting edge physics with off the shelf technology.

They call their system “magnetised target fusion”.

This approach sees a hot gas plasma injected into a ball of liquid metal inside a steel sphere. It is then compressed by pistons, much like in a diesel engine.

“The pistons all fire simultaneously and collapse the cavity with the fuel inside,” said Michael Delage, the company’s chief technology officer.

“So at the peak of that compression when the fuel bursts into fusion reaction, it is surrounded on all sides by liquid metal so the energy goes into the metal and you take this hot liquid metal and boil water, make steam and make electricity.”

General Fusion say they hope to have a working model within five years.

Why hasn’t fusion worked so far?

Despite the hopes, no one to date has managed to get more energy out of a fusion experiment than they have put in.

Most experts are confident the idea will work, but many believe that it is a matter of scale. To make it work, you have to go large.

“I think fusion needs resources to really make it work,” said Prof Ian Chapman from UKAEA. “You could do that within a company or a country but you really need to have the requisite scale and resources.”

Image copyright General Fusion
Image caption The compression system for the General Fusion reactor featuring large scale pistons

“When ITER works, and I say when, not if, it will be a step change for fusion and you will see massive investment come into the field.”

Will renewable energy make fusion redundant?

In 2018, the IPCC reported that emissions of carbon dioxide need to be reduced by 45% by 2030 to keep the rise in global temperatures under 1.5C.

Getting to that point requires a rapid decarbonisation of the energy sector. The UK has committed to Net Zero emissions by 2050 which will require the deployment of wind and solar on a massive scale. Some argue this is should be a greater priority for Britain, rather than spending large sums on experimental fusion reactors.

“The cost of renewables has shot down while the cost of the world fusion project, Iter has gone up and it now looks very unlikely they will be able to compete without new ideas,” said Sir Chris Llewellyn Smith, a one time chair of the ITER council and a respected British physicist.

“I don’t think this means we should give up on fusion, there are ways it could become cheaper but it is not going to be there immediately when we need in the UK at least.”

Others involved in the fusion industry take a different view.

“If you’re a country like Malaysia, that has a high carbon intensity of its energy system, and you’re trying to move away from coal, there’s not a lot of options today,” said Chris Mowry, General Fusion’s chief executive.

“This is the type of application we’re focused on. And even in countries like Canada, which have a fair amount of renewables, it can never be 100% renewables.”

“And so we need a carbon free source of energy that can complement renewables in the future.”


76 Comments on "Nuclear fusion is ‘a question of when, not if’"

  1. supremacist muzzies jerk enjoy croissants shape of partial moon commemorates whitey supertard sobieski defeat muzzies gates Vienna said All victory belongs to (((supremetard))) on Wed, 6th Nov 2019 3:30 pm 

    Muzzies be kind to one another hash to infidels. Erdogan modern leader few weeks ago.

    Thank supertard for work on this problem to benefit anyone but muzzies

    Thank veterans for killing muzzies to bring them closer to Allah the pedifile in life and death and away from the living

  2. supremacist muzzies jerk on Wed, 6th Nov 2019 3:38 pm 

    Harsh is understatement like beheading
    That’s harsh
    Tnx muzzies I’ll cope wish harshness but without a head it’s kinda difficult

  3. CAM on Wed, 6th Nov 2019 4:29 pm 

    Amazing, only (still) 20 years away. who would have thought.

  4. makati1 on Wed, 6th Nov 2019 5:30 pm 

    “Nuclear fusion is ‘a question of when, not if’”

    But, will my grand kids live long enough to see that day. 40+ years in the making and still counting…

  5. Antius on Wed, 6th Nov 2019 5:36 pm 

    An article on fusion from the BBC. An organization that cannot be trusted to tell you the colour of an orange.

  6. Cloggie on Thu, 7th Nov 2019 1:42 am 

    Until fusion will work, some day or never, here we have something that DOES work: a house in the Netherlands with 19 high-efficiency PVT modules on the roof:

    (Dutch language advertorial)

    PVT = combining thermal and electric functions within a single module, whereby almost all solar radiation is harvested for energy purposes for the household.

  7. Davy on Thu, 7th Nov 2019 2:23 am 

    “here we have something that DOES work: a house in the Netherlands with 19 high-efficiency PVT modules on the roof:”

    Cloggo, it works a little but not enough to transcend the carbon trap and path dependency of behavior economy wide. If anywhere will succeed better it will be northern Europe but that still does not mean that golden decade crap and your PBM nonsense. It means slower decline than other places. Look on the brighter side of things instead of false hope.

  8. Davy on Thu, 7th Nov 2019 2:25 am 

    “An article on fusion from the BBC. An organization that cannot be trusted to tell you the colour of an orange.”

    BBC has turned into another liberal fake news rag on politics. I still like its documentaries and some of its science.

  9. Davy on Thu, 7th Nov 2019 3:35 am 

    What does BBC mean everyone? Better Barbecue Company?

    I guess it does, because I like to BBQ the things I catch around my yard. Possums, salamanders, Raccoons you name it. A lot of the time they run faster than I do, but sometimes, when I catch my quarry off-guard, its BBC time. And what a time it is. The best sauce is pour some of my homemade whiskey on the flames. Nothing beats my deep-scorched, mid-west, swampland cuisine.

    Especially not those faggy left-coast liberals with their 3 course kale and tofu entrees. They hate America, and I how can I tell? Because they want to take away my BBC and want to force to eat lentil soup and kale. Well, they can have my Better Barbecue Corporation when they pry it from my fat, greasy fingers.

  10. JuanP ID theft on Thu, 7th Nov 2019 4:14 am 

    This is from stupid. He can’t help it he didn’t finish school.

    Davy said What does BBC mean everyone? Better Barbecue Compa..

  11. Davy on Thu, 7th Nov 2019 4:24 am 

    “BBC has turned into another liberal fake news rag on politics.” Davy


    I follow in the footsteps of my Dear Leader in declaring all media outlets “liberal fake news rags” if content is published contrary to my elitist and narrow point of view. Please remember, I have lived my entire life as a 1%er so while I may talk the talk about REAL Green at times, when it comes down to brass tacks, give me my Learjet and keep your liberal fucking hands off of my daddy’s money.

  12. Antius on Thu, 7th Nov 2019 4:28 am 

    “Until fusion will work, some day or never, here we have something that DOES work: a house in the Netherlands with 19 high-efficiency PVT modules on the roof”

    You should probably rephrase that: ‘DOES work in the summer’.

  13. JuanP ID theft on Thu, 7th Nov 2019 4:29 am 

    moe from stupid:

    Davy said “BBC has turned into another liberal fake ne…

  14. Cloggie on Thu, 7th Nov 2019 4:35 am 

    “You should probably rephrase that: ‘DOES work in the summer’.”

    In combination with low tech thermal storage in large water volumes it will work all year around.

    In combination with chemical energy storage all energy problems are solved. This is the last remaining challenge.

  15. REAL Green on Thu, 7th Nov 2019 4:41 am 

    “Genex selects Andritz as preferred supplier for Kidston 2, announces Kidston 3 wind component” hydro review

    Australian renewable energy developer Genex Power Ltd. has named Andritz as its preferred equipment supplier for the 250-MW Kidston Stage 2 pumped-storage hydropower project, which is to be located in northern Queensland…The Kidston Stage 2 pumped storage plant (K2-Hydro) is one component of a complex that will also include a 270 MW solar facility (K2-Solar). Both were also recently awarded development approvals by the Etheridge Shire Council…Now, Genex says it has secured an “exclusive option” to develop a 150 MW wind farm to “provide inversely correlated generation which could enable the dispatch of firm clean renewable electricity 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.”

  16. REAL Green on Thu, 7th Nov 2019 4:41 am 

    “Genex Power reports delay in developing Kidston Pumped Storage Hydro project” renewable energy world

    “Genex Power now says it anticipates that the Northern Australia Infrastructure Facility (NAIF) concessional loan offer and the J-POWER share subscription agreement, both “major milestones achieved in 2019,” will lapse at or before Dec. 31, 2019. NAIF approval of a $610 million concessional loan for the project was received in July 2019, and J-POWER and Genex signed a $25 million share subscription agreement for Genex’s equity requirement for the project in June 2019. The utility says it “will continue to work with EA and its other financiers and counterparties, including NAIF and J-POWER, to restructure the financing for the transaction to ensure a positive investment decision can be reached and financial close can be achieved. This is now anticipated to occur in 2020.”

  17. REAL Green on Thu, 7th Nov 2019 4:42 am 

    “Dumped fishing gear is biggest plastic polluter in ocean, finds report” faster than expected

    “SNIP: Lost and abandoned fishing gear which is deadly to marine life makes up the majority of large plastic pollution in the oceans, according to a report by Greenpeace. More than 640,000 tonnes of nets, lines, pots and traps used in commercial fishing are dumped and discarded in the sea every year, the same weight as 55,000 double-decker buses. The report, which draws on the most up-to-date research on “ghost gear” polluting the oceans, calls for international action to stop the plastic pollution, which is deadly for marine wildlife…Ghost gear is estimated to make up 10% of ocean plastic pollution but forms the majority of large plastic littering the waters. One study found that as much as 70% (by weight) of macroplastics (in excess of 20cm) found floating on the surface of the ocean was fishing related. A recent study of the “great Pacific garbage patch”, an area of plastic accumulation in the north Pacific, estimated that it contained 42,000 tonnes of megaplastics, of which 86% was fishing nets.”

  18. REAL Green on Thu, 7th Nov 2019 4:43 am 

    “Italy Becomes First Country to Add Climate Crisis to Its Core School Curriculum” eco watch

    “Italy has stepped into the forefront of environmental education by adding the climate crisis and sustainable development as a mandatory part of the curriculum, the country’s education minister announced Tuesday, as The New York Times reported.”

    “Significant Renewable Energy Growth in U.S. Very Soon, New Estimates Predict” eco watch

    “After revising its three-year U.S. power forecast, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) has predicted major declines for fossil fuels and nuclear power alongside strong growth in renewables by 2022, according to a review of the data by the SUN DAY Campaign, a pro-renewables research and education nonprofit.”

  19. Davy on Thu, 7th Nov 2019 5:10 am 

    “Obamagate: How Much Did He Know About Brennan’s CIA Task Force?” ron paul institute

    “Former CIA officer Phil Giraldi joins today’s Liberty Report to discuss the breaking scandal over the Obama Administration’s intelligence leaders and the plot against candidate Trump. Then-CIA Director John Brennan reportedly set up a CIA task force early in 2016 to surveil and even conduct covert actions against candidate and then President Trump. Are we witnessing a “deep state” coup against the president? Will heads roll? Was Obama at the center of the operation? Watch today’s Liberty Report:”

  20. Davy on Thu, 7th Nov 2019 5:11 am 

    “35 Reasons Why You Should Move Away From California” the economic collapse blog

    “1. Incredibly high taxes. At this point, California has the highest marginal tax rate in the entire country. 2. Absurd housing costs. 3. The median home value in the state is now more than half a million dollars, and that is about twice as high as the national average. 4. It has been estimated that it now takes approximately $350,000 a year to live a middle class lifestyle in the city of San Francisco. 5. Endless wildfires. 6. Epic mudslides. 7. Horrific traffic jams. 8. Los Angeles has the worst traffic congestion in the entire world. 9. The education system is awful. 10. Medical tyranny. 11. One of the highest poverty levels in the United States. 12. Thousands of drug addicts are literally pooping in the streets. 13. Almost half of all the homeless people in the entire nation live in California. 14. The state is literally being overrun by millions of rats. 15. Los Angeles has been ranked as the second most rat-infested city in the country. 16. At this point things are so bad that even Los Angeles City Hall is being overrun by rats. 17. Illegal immigration is out of control, and the sanctuary cities in California are making things even worse. 18. Rising gang activity. 19. High crime rates. 20. There is now a law in California that protects shoplifters. So for those that enjoy shoplifting, this might actually be a reason to move into the state. 21. The drug war that has been raging in Mexico is increasingly spilling across the border. 22. California has been ranked as the worst state in the nation to do business year after year. 23. California is also one of the most litigious states in the entire country. 24. The once pristine beaches in the state are now being “completely overrun with fecal bacteria”. 25. Nancy Pelosi. 26. Kamala Harris. 27. Governor Gavin Newsom. 28. The lieutenant governor, the attorney general, the secretary of state and the state treasurer are all Democrats. 29. Democrats make up nearly two-thirds of the California State Senate. 30. Democrats make up more than two-thirds of the California State Assembly. 31. Both of the U.S. senators and 46 out of the 53 members of the House of Representatives that California sends to Washington are Democrats. 32. Much of the population is openly hostile to those that identify as conservatives. 33. California has been on the cutting edge of America’s moral decay for decades. 34. There have been more than 100,000 earthquakes in the state so far this year. 35. One day the “Big One” will hit California, and the geography of the state will be dramatically altered. The devastation will be unlike anything we have ever witnessed, and the death toll will be unimaginable.”

  21. Antius on Thu, 7th Nov 2019 5:39 am 

    “In combination with low tech thermal storage in large water volumes it will work all year around.

    In combination with chemical energy storage all energy problems are solved. This is the last remaining challenge.”

    I agree that thermal energy storage is the most practicable, scalable and cost effective way of storing energy. It can be used as an end use storage solution as you have alluded to and as means of storing electricity, if a high temperature store is integrated into a thermodynamic power plant. It is cheap because heat can be stored in bulk materials very cheaply. For anything other than short term storage on a timescale of hours; thermal is very likely to be the cheapest and most practicable means.

    About a year back, I posted an analysis on this site that demonstrated that distributed PV generation on rooftops made little economic sense. Even in Holland, where the cost of farmland is greater than any other part of Europe, it is still much cheaper per kWh to buy up farmland and build utility grade solar power plants. There is a huge price variance between large utility grade solar and rooftop solar, to the extent that it only makes sense to pursue rooftop solar in places where grid connection would be prohibitively expensive. I would imagine that very few areas in Europe fall into that category. I should have kept the analysis.

    If renewable energy is to displace fossil fuels rapidly, it needs to provide cheap electricity and heat. That means exploiting economies of scale; large utility grade solar power plants; large 10+MW wind turbines built on land where practicable; built offshore where not. We also need to avoid profligately wasteful uses of electricity, such as electrically powered SUVs.

  22. Cloggie on Thu, 7th Nov 2019 5:40 am 

    “Cloggo, it works a little but not enough to transcend the carbon trap and path dependency of behavior economy wide.”

    BS. Back of an envelop numbers:
    Average Dutch household natural gas consumption for heating: 1500 m3/year = 15,000 kWh/year

    Average Dutch solar irradiation: 1000 kWh/m2/year

    That would be 15m2 pvt panels per household. Allow for losses a few m2 extra. With 20m2 low tech pvt panels and low tech seasonal storage and heat pumps and additional home insulation measures you have your decarbonated space heating. Perfectly doable.

    But you won’t accept that as you are “planning” for a world population of 1 billion.


  23. Antius on Thu, 7th Nov 2019 6:12 am 

    It means rolling out interseasonal heat storage on a huge scale. Whilst this undoubtedly works, it would require significant infrastructure investments in seasonal storage tanks and heat distribution networks. On the plus side, the equipment is low tech and this is something that a town could decide to build with low-skilled labour in a SHTF scenario.

    Interseasonal storage isn’t really efficient as a household solution (I have tried), it tends to be used as part of district heating because large tanks have less surface area per unit volume. It also works best with centralised heat generation, either waste heat from a powerplant or a large bank of solar thermal collectors close to the tank.

    Definitely a sensible thing to do and there is no reason why the tank and pipework cannot last a century or more. But it isn’t cheap. It would work well in places like Holland, where population is clustered in small densely populated towns. Not so well in the US, where urban settlements are spread out. Very situation dependant.

  24. Davy on Thu, 7th Nov 2019 6:16 am 

    “That would be 15m2 pvt panels per household. Allow for losses a few m2 extra. With 20m2 low tech pvt panels and low tech seasonal storage and heat pumps and additional home insulation measures you have your decarbonated space heating. Perfectly doable.”
    A back of envelope view of your back of the envelope numbers sees that you do not include all the other cost which will become huge once you get past the sweet spots into difficult high penetration high cost areas. This is typical of your “doeable” mentality

    “But you won’t accept that as you are “planning” for a world population of 1 billion.”
    I am not planning for 1BIL but I am honest by saying it might happen. My planning will likely give me beer and popcorn space while other are scrambling and crying if a swift collapse starts. I am more planning for a process that will likely be a step-down affair, location based and variable in intensity. The point of my REAL Green is choosing your location wisely to reduce the effects of failure but if you cannot reposition then prepare accordingly for the possibility of a quick naked failure. Honest science is very clear about locations and lifestyles most at risk. This is opposite to the cloggo golden decade and PBM empire crap of grand Napoleonic Armies sweeping the globe with Eurotard banners. Your “we white eurotards will be fine, “rolling your eyes” and “Whatever” is the drivel I am mentioning here..


  25. Antius on Thu, 7th Nov 2019 6:30 am 

    Z-pinch is an altogether more promising pathway towards fusion.

    Whereas a Tokomak achieves plasma pressure of a few atmospheres; in a Z-pinch device, pressures are over 1billion atm. Volumetric fusion rate is proportional to the square of particle density, which is a linear function of pressure. So to achieve respectable power density, plasma pressure must be high. Something that faces a very definite upper limit in a Tokomak, due to the achievable magnetic field strength using superconducting magnets and the high beta needed for plasma stability.

  26. Cloggie on Thu, 7th Nov 2019 8:04 am 

    Antius, will write a post on Ecovat cost soon.


    For a good insulated home you need 40-60 m3 storage.
    Price 8,000 euro/household on sufficient large storage scale, think 1,000 households.

  27. Cloggie on Thu, 7th Nov 2019 11:38 am 

    Hydrogen economy taking of in the UK:

    “ITM Power Opens 1GW/Year Electrolyser Manufacturing Facility”

    ITM helps kicking off the hydrogen economy in Holland as well:

    “HyStock – First Step Building Dutch Hydrogen Economy”

    How the energy landscape will look like in 2050:

    “TenneT & Gasunie Infrastructure Outlook 2050 Animation”

    Since the Netherlands has a vast natural gas network, there is no need to expand the electricity grid. Renewable energy can be distributed in the form of hydrogen through the existing pipe network.

  28. Davy on Thu, 7th Nov 2019 12:12 pm 

    “Hydrogen economy taking of in the UK:”

    LOL, define taking off?? Hydrogen will likely never be more than a niche or small sector. It is important but not a significant transition energy vector.

  29. Duncan Idaho on Thu, 7th Nov 2019 12:39 pm 

    New York Fed Adds $115.14 Billion in Short-Term Liquidity to Markets
    (Additions include $80.14 billion in overnight repurchase agreement and $35 billion 14-day repo)

  30. Cloggie on Thu, 7th Nov 2019 1:11 pm 

    “Hydrogen will likely never be more than a niche or small sector..”

    Assertions without even a beginning of an attempt to substantiate. Intellectually paper thin, as usual. Empire dave wants the world to collapse (“planning 1 billion people left world-wide”) and everything that stands in the way needs to be shouted down. What shouldn’t exist, won’t. Attitude of a 12 year old, stamping on the ground with his feet in rage.

  31. Davy on Thu, 7th Nov 2019 1:17 pm 

    Cloggo, I ask you to define “take off” and you come back with an ad-hom, case closed

  32. Cloggie on Thu, 7th Nov 2019 2:04 pm 

    “ITM Power Opens 1GW/Year Electrolyser Manufacturing Facility”

    Do you even understand what this means?

    ITM just opened a electrolyser production facility with a yearly output, able to convert the entire output of a large standard 1 GW conventional power station into hydrogen.

    This is huge.

    This is not a research facility, this is the kickoff of the hydrogen economy.

  33. Anonymouse on Thu, 7th Nov 2019 2:34 pm 

    I can define “Take off: for excetpopnalturd.

    It is what the both of you should have done years ago. It is what both of you should do IMMEDIATELY.

    Take off > Get Lost.

    Take off > Go away

    Take off > FOAD (work that one out yourselves).

    Lets try and use it an actual sentence now.

    Davytard, and kloggkike should TAKE OFF, and not come back, ever.

    See how easy that was?

    Right retards?

  34. Davy on Thu, 7th Nov 2019 2:49 pm 

    Wads da madder dumbass. Daddy makato is here less and less and your best friend juan is more insane than you. Looks like you have been beaten and pissed on. I still wish I could find that feed where Ape Man gave you a blistering and you whimpered like a hurt puppy. LMFAO. He saw right through your Jew shit and other sicknesses of your mind.

  35. Cloggie on Thu, 7th Nov 2019 2:49 pm 

    Shoeshine has absolutely nothing to say, just stalking, pretending he determines who can frequent this board and who doesn’t. Without avail of course. Total impotence in every imaginable aspect of life.

  36. Davy on Thu, 7th Nov 2019 2:51 pm 

    “This is huge.”

    nothing but a popcorn fart, cloggo, in the big picture. Get back to me when you have real numbers and BTW, I wonder what the subsidies are???

  37. Davy on Thu, 7th Nov 2019 2:55 pm 

    Cloggo, for the record I am excited about hydrogen it is just the application of hydrogen in the modern economy is likely not going to be huge as in a game changer. I hope I am wrong but that is how I see it. Renewables will have another dump storage strategy which is good but scaling that up will take years.

  38. Cloggie on Thu, 7th Nov 2019 2:58 pm 

    What paet of 1 GW/year don’t you understand?

    Whatever, pearls for the goats.

    Meanwhile in France…

    Now you’re talking!

    “Brain death’ of Nato has placed Europe ‘on a precipice’, warns France’s Emmanuel Macron”

    “Beyond market expansion, Europe must start thinking of itself as a strategic power, said the French president.

    That should start with regaining “military sovereignty”, and re-opening a dialogue with Russia despite suspicion from Poland and other countries that were once under Soviet domination.”

    The disgusting US c*ck sucker Merkel obviously stepped on the brakes, but she will be gone soon.

    Macron is geopolitically aligning himself with European populists vis-a-vis Russia.

  39. Essence of Davy PrickFace on Thu, 7th Nov 2019 3:01 pm 

    I am Davy

    I am a PrickFace

    I am Davy PrickFace.

  40. Cloggie on Thu, 7th Nov 2019 3:05 pm 

    Bye-bye “Out of Africa”

    “Have they finally found the REAL missing link? Scientists discover 12 million-year-old ape fossil with straight hind legs for ‘walking upright’ in the heart of Europe”

  41. Timothy Blaine on Thu, 7th Nov 2019 3:05 pm 

    Funniest part is Davy PrickFace’s word salads manage to convince/influence absolutely ZERO people.

    What a total waste. This sad excuse of an American is exactly why the USA is going down the shittier and the sooner the better.

  42. full woke supremacist muzzies jerk when you bite the fries the fries bite you back dayum daaaaaay on Thu, 7th Nov 2019 3:18 pm 

    Be respectful to supertard
    Can I touch the learjet pls supertard

  43. JuanP garbage on Thu, 7th Nov 2019 3:31 pm 

    This is from stupid. Stupid didn’t finish high school. Can you tell?

    full woke supremacist muzzies jerk when you bite the fries the fries bite you back dayum daaaaaay said Be respectful to supertard Can I touch the learjet…

    Timothy Blaine said Funniest part is Davy PrickFace’s word salad…

    Essence of Davy PrickFace said I am Davy I am a PrickFace I am Davy PrickFace….

  44. Davy on Thu, 7th Nov 2019 3:37 pm 

    “Macron is geopolitically aligning himself with European populists vis-a-vis Russia.”

    Macron is a whore. Putin probably thinks of him as a twink when they are done talking. Nothing impressive there cloggo, nor is your fantasy that he is a populist on target. Nobody wants to jump in bed with the Russians but many rational people believe Russia needs to be brought in from the cold. Russians are impressive people. I respect them highly.

  45. Davy on Thu, 7th Nov 2019 3:47 pm 

    This unmoderated forum is soooo lame. Thats why I am spending soooo much less time here to concentrate on my own lame blog.

  46. FuelShortageComing on Thu, 7th Nov 2019 3:48 pm 

    Wide chest man. Probably neanderthal man.

    Neanderthal man was the superior man, the superior creation of something intelligent.

  47. supremacist muzzies jerk on Thu, 7th Nov 2019 4:18 pm 

    Davy on Thu, 7th Nov 2019 3:47 pm
    Above not supertard obv.
    I’ll submit my treatise later. It’s a big hit cause supertards like it

    When I googled women eating croissants shape of muzzies partial moon I found many images. Why is that considering women are libs in coalition with muzzies. You dont take a bite out of your coalition doesn’t make sense. Maybe there’s hope women with hand guns feeling muzzies into muzzies anti rape machine. Croissant was invented to commemorate defeat of muzzies at gates of vienna

  48. JuanP ID theft on Thu, 7th Nov 2019 4:18 pm 

    more stupid

    Davy said This unmoderated forum is soooo lame. Thats why I..

  49. JuanP garbage on Thu, 7th Nov 2019 4:22 pm 

    Did I mention stupid did not finish high school? lol

    supremacist muzzies jerk said Davy on Thu, 7th Nov 2019 3:47 pm Above not supert…

  50. full woke supremacist muzzie jerk i know some wrong when a pretty little white girl ran to a black man's arms dead giveaway deeeeeeed giveaway on Thu, 7th Nov 2019 7:02 pm 

    Cloggie on Thu, 7th Nov 2019 2:58 pm
    supertard, could you do us a big favor and reject the points made by (((supertard))) Friedemann? you avoid the 500lb gorilla by giving up piecemeal equivalence of fantastic flying goat stories.
    thanks supertard

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