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Japan Eyes Replacing Oil With Hydrogen Amid Carbon Neutral Push

Alternative Energy

Tucked into a port in western Japan sits a spherical tank that may soon hold the country’s energy future. The import terminal in the city of Kobe, is slated to get its debut hydrogen shipment in March. Over the next 30 years deliveries of the zero-emission fuel are expected to ramp up exponentially as the world’s fifth-biggest polluter seeks ways to replace its heavy fossil fuel use and meet a pledge to become greenhouse gas neutral by 2050. The monumental shift would require Japan to import the fuel using an armada of specialized tankers, according to Kawasaki Heavy Industries Ltd., the tank owner and the country’s only developer of a hydrogen supply chain. It would also represent a shot in the arm for the nascent industry, which BloombergNEF estimates could meet almost a quarter of the world’s energy needs by mid-century.

“Hydrogen is indispensable for Japan to reach the zero-emission goal,” Motohiko Nishimura, the head of KHI’s hydrogen project development center, said in an interview in Kobe, where the company is based. “Renewable energy alone isn’t enough to meet the nation’s hefty energy needs.” While many countries are building out wind, solar and batteries as they intensify efforts to move away from fossil fuels in the fight against climate change, that is a challenge in densely populated Japan.

Hydrogen offers the greatest potential to decarbonize difficult-to-abate sectors like steel, cement and heavy duty transport, according to BNEF. That could be especially critical as the world’s fifth-largest greenhouse gas emitter embarks on its pathway toward net-zero emissions.

To be sure, hydrogen poses somewhat of a dilemma in the clean-energy transition as it is still cheaper to produce from fossil fuels rather than from renewable energy. However, the European Union and South Korea are betting on hydrogen generated from renewables to become more economical as solar and wind costs fall.

Investment of as much as $425 billion would be needed if hydrogen is to account for 40% of Japan’s energy needs, said Shin Furuno, a senior manager with Asia Investor Group on Climate Change. He based the estimate on an extrapolation of South Korea’s hydrogen roadmap, which sees investment of $136 billion for the fuel to reach a 20% share of its energy requirement by 2050.

The shift to hydrogen would be an echo in resource-poor Japan’s development of the liquefied natural gas industry more than 50 years ago through large investments in import infrastructure and by being a key buyer for numerous export projects. “It won’t take decades” for the hydrogen industry to develop, like it took for LNG, Jochen Eickholt, an executive board member at German technological behemoth Siemens Energy AG, said in an interview in Singapore. “But it won’t happen overnight.” KHI is eager to get the ball rolling. The company is creating a global supply chain — producing hydrogen from brown coal in Australia, building ships and storage tanks as well as hydrogen-fired generation facilities for power and heat.

To be carbon-neutral in 2050, Japan will have to import 36 million tons of liquefied hydrogen, more than 100 times its projected imports in 2030, when commercial use of the fuel in the nation is expected to start, KHI’s Nishimura said.

Bloomberg



48 Comments on "Japan Eyes Replacing Oil With Hydrogen Amid Carbon Neutral Push"

  1. Go Speed Racer on Tue, 10th Nov 2020 1:52 pm 

    produce the hydrogen from brown coal?
    only a libtard democrat Harris-biden voter could come up with something so stupid. why not get the hydrogen from a sofa cushion and pallet fire? plenty of environmentally friendly hydrogen in old tires and mattresses, just set them on fire.
    l

  2. Anonymouse on Tue, 10th Nov 2020 3:40 pm 

    Good idea GSR. Myself, I have long considered Lazy-boy recliners, along with pallets and mattresses ofcourse, as ‘bridge-fuels’, to a more sustainable, Sofa-based power grid.

    While we are enjoying the comfort and security of Furniture fuels, we can wisely use the time they buy to prefect and bring online, even more awesome power, like fusion power (ETA-CE 2020 to CE 3000). Give or take a century, black hole power, and perpetual motion generators.

    As an added bonus, most of the turtleneck wearing, latte-sipping east coast liberals that got into this mess in the 1st place, should, hopefully, all be dead by then.

    Sofa-power. The bridge fuel to the singularity!

  3. Cloggie on Tue, 10th Nov 2020 3:40 pm 

    “produce the hydrogen from brown coal?”

    Initially!

    “To be carbon-neutral in 2050”

    You gotta start somewhere. It is not just producing hydrogen, it is also refactoring your entire industrial base away from fossil towards hydrogen. Everything needs to change. From this point of view it makes very well sense to TEMPORARILY produce hydrogen from brown coal, so you can develop hydrogen cars, planes, trains, cement and steel works, etc.

    But by 2050 at the latest brown coal needs to disappear completely and hydrogen will exclusively produced from renewable sources.

  4. makati1 on Tue, 10th Nov 2020 3:46 pm 

    Hydrogen is another sick joke. Change FFs to hydrogen, with a net LOSS of energy, and a lot of bullshit about pollution. Never going to happen in any significant amount.

    Using another “never going to happen” energy source (renewables) to make it, is another sick joke on the uneducated, non-thinking, stupid serfs. Does changing a paper dollar into 90 cents worth of coins sound like a good deal?

    LMAO!

  5. Abraham van Helsing on Tue, 10th Nov 2020 3:47 pm 

    OMG, look what Trump supporters are doing to Donkey Idaho!

    https://www.infowars.com/posts/video-trump-supporters-pin-down-violent-liberal-who-slammed-his-car-into-their-caravan/

    This is too hard!

    LOL One thoughtful Trump-supporter says: “let him breathe!”

  6. Abraham van Helsing on Tue, 10th Nov 2020 3:52 pm 

    LOL

    https://www.unz.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/11/Iwo_BIden.png

  7. Antius on Tue, 10th Nov 2020 4:42 pm 

    Hydrogen is a difficult fuel to work with. It has poor volumetric energy density. It cannot easily be pressurised, as its atomic radius is so small that it soaks into, embrittles and leaks through most metals and will escape through seals. Liquefying hydrogen is impractical for all but niche applications.

    So basically, using hydrogen as a fuel means storing and distributing it at close to atmospheric pressure. That means huge gasometers and bulky gas bag vehicles. It probably could work at some level, but private transport is an application for which it is inherently unsuitable.

  8. Cloggie on Tue, 10th Nov 2020 4:56 pm 

    Hydrogen is a difficult fuel to work with. It has poor volumetric energy density. It cannot easily be pressurised, as its atomic radius is so small that it soaks into, embrittles and leaks through most metals and will escape through seals. Liquefying hydrogen is impractical for all but niche applications.

    So basically, using hydrogen as a fuel means storing and distributing it at close to atmospheric pressure. That means huge gasometers and bulky gas bag vehicles. It probably could work at some level, but private transport is an application for which it is inherently unsuitable.

    Not if you tie hydrogen to other atoms, then all of a sudden it becomes very workable:

    https://deepresource.wordpress.com/2020/02/15/h2fuel/

    “Alternatively, you can store it in the form of borohydride powder (NaBH4).
    Energy density NaBH4: 1 kg contains 9 kWh, that’s almost as good as gasoline.

    https://deepresource.wordpress.com/2019/01/27/nabh4-the-vice-admiral-has-a-message-for-dutch-parliament/

    60 kg NaBH4 yoghurt-like substance brings a car 1000 km.

  9. Abraham van Helsing on Tue, 10th Nov 2020 5:20 pm 

    Speaking of donkeys, have you ever had one fuck you in the backdoor? It IS SO FULLFILLING — EeeeORE!

  10. Bochen787 on Tue, 10th Nov 2020 5:38 pm 

    Speaking of donkeys, have you ever had one fuck you in the backdoor? It IS SO FULLFILLING — EeeeORE!

  11. Davy on Tue, 10th Nov 2020 5:49 pm 

    Speaking of goats, have you ever had one fuck you in the backdoor? It IS SO FULLFILLING — EeeeORE!

  12. Cloggie on Tue, 10th Nov 2020 5:57 pm 

    A consortium of Dutch corporations will have a first vessel for inland shipping working on hydrogen before 2023.

    https://deepresource.wordpress.com/2020/11/10/dutch-hydrogen-ship-anthonie/

  13. Cloggie on Tue, 10th Nov 2020 6:02 pm 

    Hydrogen drone takes off today in the Netherlands:

    https://deepresource.wordpress.com/2020/11/11/tu-delft-hydrogen-drone-takes-off/

  14. zero juan on Tue, 10th Nov 2020 6:12 pm 

    Ppee, your mad! Davy is taking over your life, Fuck.

    Davy said Speaking of goats, have you ever had one fuck you…

    zero davy said daVvee, you ae going mad. Your situation is deteri…

  15. zero davy on Tue, 10th Nov 2020 7:01 pm 

    daVvee, your mad! JuanP is taking over your life,
    Fuck.

    zero juan on Tue, 10th Nov 2020 6:12 pm

  16. zero juan on Tue, 10th Nov 2020 7:17 pm 

    Ppee, can’t you be more creative than repeating. You are so brain dead, fuck.

    zero davy said daVvee, your mad! JuanP is taking over your life,

  17. zero davy on Tue, 10th Nov 2020 7:22 pm 

    daVvee, can’t you be more creative than repeating. You are so brain dead, fuck.

  18. Duncan Idaho on Tue, 10th Nov 2020 7:59 pm 

    A Pennsylvania postal worker admitted to U.S. Postal Service investigators that he fabricated the allegations.

    https://www.sfgate.com/news/article/Postal-worker-admits-fabricating-allegations-of-15717493.php?IPID=SFGate-HP-CP-Spotlight

    Repugs– if they weren’t so stupid, they would be dangerous

  19. Duncan Idaho on Tue, 10th Nov 2020 8:05 pm 

    “The Fat Boy is becoming more fearful and anxious by the day. Above everything else, he desperately wants to save his own skin and avoid spending his remaining days outfitted in an orange prison jumpsuit. This is why, as the legal challenges to his humiliating defeat at the polls fail one by one, he will eventually shed his phony tough-guy facade and seek refuge in a presidential pardon for the myriad of federal felonies he may have committed.”

    He needs a pardon bad.

  20. Duncan Idaho on Tue, 10th Nov 2020 8:10 pm 

    “Clearly, the Fat Boy is in survival mode. He has no escape route, and he is running out of time. He is caught in what the ancient Greeks called a “dilemma,” a predicament with no good alternatives.”

  21. Duncan Idaho on Tue, 10th Nov 2020 8:19 pm 

    Decades of Republican Mismanagement Have Left Red States Mired in the Past & at the Bottom

    https://www.dailykos.com/stories/2020/11/10/1994653/-Decades-of-Republican-Mismanagement-Have-Left-Red-States-Mired-in-the-Past-at-the-Bottom

    California is tired of supporting our Red Friends.

    Put down the beer, lose 75 pounds, and get to work!

  22. I AM THE MOB on Tue, 10th Nov 2020 11:56 pm 

    There would be no worldwide lockdown, if the Elites were winning.

    They are trapped like rats and they know it.

  23. Cloggie on Thu, 12th Nov 2020 5:27 am 

    Hydrogen storage solution in sight. The Japanese are entirely right to bet on hydrogen:

    https://deepresource.wordpress.com/2020/11/12/borohydride-as-the-solution-to-the-hydrogen-storage-problem/

    “Borohydride as the Solution to the Hydrogen Storage Problem?”

    If nothing better comes up, I prognosticate 80-20 that this is the future of hydrogen storage, certainly for mobile applications such as cars and planes: borohydride.

    I don’t think I will buy a battery car any time soon. These charger stations are too much hassle, compared to driving into a legacy but retrofitted petrol station to tank your 60 kg of borohydride (“yoghurt”) every 3-4 weeks and drive for 1000 km. The only difference is that drivers need to have their tanks cleaned from the rest product first. So fueling is a two-step process.

    1. NaB(OH)4 out
    2. NaBH4 in

  24. Abraham van Helsing on Thu, 12th Nov 2020 12:46 pm 

    “Trump Purging Deep State & Is “In Control,” Expert Reveals”

    https://www.infowars.com/posts/trump-purging-deep-state-is-in-control-expert-reveals/

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Steve_Pieczenik

    Dr. Steve Pieczeni is a former State official and 9/11-truther. Remarkable is that he is jewish.

    They come in all sizes.

    It’s not over in a long shot.

  25. FamousDrScanlon on Thu, 12th Nov 2020 1:39 pm 

    clog, do you know what Alex Jones is all about?

    Here’s what Alex Jones is all about.

    https://www.infowarsstore.com/

    Don’t forget to stock up on your Tactical Tampons & Cammo Maxi-Pads, clog.

    Free Deep State Decoder Ring with every purchase over $199.99

  26. zero juan on Thu, 12th Nov 2020 1:50 pm 

    Ppee, everyone knows the FamousFuck is you the lunatic.

    FamousDrScanlon said clog, do you know what Alex Jones is all about? He…

    FamousDrScanlon said ‘Help us! Our POTUS has neglected & betr…

    FamousDrScanlon said The Physics of Life https://youtu.be/GcfLZSL7YGw

    zero davy said DaVvee, stop the childish socks pleas, Troll. Ever…

    Abraham van Helsing said “Trump Purging Deep State & Is “In Contr…

    FamousDrScanlon said “change is exactly what we’re going to get.&…

  27. zero davy on Thu, 12th Nov 2020 2:39 pm 

    DaVvee, everyone knows the PinkPoodleFuck is you the lunatic, and FamousDrScanlon is Apneaman.

    fuckwak

  28. zero juan on Thu, 12th Nov 2020 2:58 pm 

    Ppee juan is REAL mad. LMFAO. Widdle Ppee eat shit and die. I find is so enjoyable when you suffer

    zero davy said DaVvee, everyone knows the PinkPoodleFuck is you t…

    FamousDrScanlon said And what is this “Trumpism” of which they speak? I…

  29. zero davy on Thu, 12th Nov 2020 3:03 pm 

    daVvee is REAL mad. LOFAO. Widdle DaVvee eat shit and die. We find is so enjoyable when you suffer

  30. Duncan Idaho on Thu, 12th Nov 2020 3:16 pm 

    As Trump Whines and Gaslights, Here’s a Reality Check: He Got His Ass Kicked in the General Election

    “The fact that he is a major loser does not sit well with this egomaniacal president. But his feelings can’t change the facts.”

    https://www.commondreams.org/news/2020/11/12/trump-whines-and-gaslights-heres-reality-check-he-got-his-ass-kicked-general

  31. Duncan Idaho on Thu, 12th Nov 2020 3:19 pm 

    The Fat Boy’s worst days are yet to come.

    As COVID Spikes Higher Than Ever, Trump’s Leadership Hits Rock Bottom

    https://truthout.org/articles/as-covid-spikes-higher-than-ever-trumps-leadership-hits-rock-bottom/

  32. Davy on Thu, 12th Nov 2020 3:22 pm 

    Qu: Who is Davy’s best friend?
    Ans: Zero Juan
    Qu: who is Davy’s worst enemy?
    Ans: Zero Juan
    Qu: What does Davy call his goat (I mean wife)?
    Ans: JuanP
    Qu: What does Davy call his imaginary friend?
    Ans: JuanP.
    Qu: What is Davy’s most memorable post?
    Ans: Not Davy Thu, 12th Nov 2019 5:27 am

  33. zero juan on Thu, 12th Nov 2020 3:36 pm 

    Ppee, Davy does not visit this insane forum but he does rent space in your lunatic brain. LMFAO I love when you suffer TROLL!

    Davy said Qu: Who is Davy’s best friend? Ans: Zero Jua…

    zero davy said daVvee is REAL mad. LOFAO. Widdle DaVvee eat shit…

  34. zero juan on Thu, 12th Nov 2020 3:42 pm 

    PPee, BTW, tell your FamousDrFuck thanks for all the reporting on the dirty Democrat election fraud.

  35. REAL Green on Thu, 12th Nov 2020 3:43 pm 

    You are Davy zero juan and so am I.

    lunatic

  36. REAL Green on Thu, 12th Nov 2020 3:46 pm 

    “tell your FamousDrFuck thanks for all the reporting on the dirty Democrat election fraud.”

    That was us too. Lunatic

  37. zero juan on Thu, 12th Nov 2020 5:12 pm 

    Ppee, dumbfuck, you can’t see REAL Green, remember you have him on ignore. I guess he is renting space in your sick mind too. LMFAO @ luntic.

    FamousDrScanlon said Greed explained: J. Paul Getty, Aristotle and the…

    FamousDrScanlon said Antius, weather you care or not it does not invali…

    REAL Green said “tell your FamousDrFuck thanks for all the reporti…

    REAL Green said You are Davy zero juan and so am I. lunatic

  38. FamousDrScanlon on Thu, 12th Nov 2020 5:30 pm 

    “When computers cheat, they inevitably leave evidence behind”
    https://www.americanthinker.com/blog/2020/11/when_computers_cheat_they_inevitably_leave_evidence_behind.html

    “You should learn three main things from this post: (1) the Supreme Court can consider statistical evidence of fraud and can order a new election. (2) Most of the computers used for voting in America have a built-in mechanism that allows votes to be weighted in favor of a candidate. (3) If someone does tell a computer to mess with the election outcome, the computer’s processes will inevitably create unnatural data trails that prove human intervention in vote counts — and that’s what happened in three Michigan counties…Some of the statistical data Trump needs can be found in the video at the bottom of this post. In it, Shiva Ayyadurai, Ph.D., a multi-credentialed MIT grad whom leftists despise, works with Bennie Smith, a software engineer, election commissioner, and data analyst, and Phil Evans, an inventor, engineer, and data analyst, to show massive voting machine fraud in three Michigan counties. Ayyadurai leads with some fundamentals. First, most vote tabulation using computers is fraught with ambiguity and the potential for error. As we’ve learned, the ballots going into the system can be fraudulent (dead voters, fake voters, faked ballots, etc.). Democrat-run states increase the potential for fraud with mass mail-in voting, prohibitions against voter ID, and a failure to check signatures. Second, we don’t know what goes on inside the computers. The computers work by taking a snapshot of each ballot and then working off the snapshot. By law, these snapshots must be saved for 22 months, but Democrat-run counties and states tend to delete them immediately. Third, we don’t have evidence tying voters to the ballots fed into the computers, since voters leave empty-handed. Moreover, if voters enter data on the computer screen and then hand a printout to a poll worker, although voters can see accurate words on that printout, they have no idea if the coding that the computer reads is accurate. Fourth, almost all voting machines (including Dominion’s) are intentionally programmed with something called a “weighted race feature.” This allows the computer to add a multiplier to a candidate’s actual votes. For example, the machine could automatically multiply every Biden vote by some number over one…Intriguingly, the more heavily Republican a precinct was, the more votes the machine stole from Trump and gave to Biden, creating a beautifully sloping line on the graph that could never have occurred naturally. If you know how to read them, machines are rotten liars. It’s noteworthy how ambiguous the data are. For just three of the four counties analyzed, the analysis showed that Trump’s margin was reduced by a minimum of 138,000 votes. Now imagine if this vote theft occurred in Michigan’s other 80 counties. And keep in mind that Michigan is one of the states that allegedly passed thousands of fraudulent ballots into those voting machines. (See here, here, and here for examples.) When you consider that Biden allegedly “won” by less than 3%, the combination of voting machine manipulation and illegal votes means Trump is right — he probably won Michigan handily”

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ztu5Y5obWPk&feature=youtu.be

  39. Davy on Thu, 12th Nov 2020 5:40 pm 

    American thinker is a oxy-moron Famous Dr. Scanlon. Biden won the election. And Trump did not make America grate again. He made us worse. Much worse. I bet he kills off another quarter million of us by the time we have to force his dumbass to leave. I hope he moves to Israel where he belongs. the stupid fuck

  40. Duncan Idaho on Thu, 12th Nov 2020 5:53 pm 

    @patrickharvie
    said there is a need to “protect Scotland’s good name from association with the toxic Trump brand” and highlighted “serious and long-standing concerns about Trump’s business activities,” both in Scotland and further afield 2/

    Foreigners are getting ready to kick the Fat Boy’s ass—

  41. Duncan Idaho on Thu, 12th Nov 2020 5:56 pm 

    Another tantrum

    Child size fists shaking, loud sobs

    Tiny feet stomping

  42. Duncan Idaho on Thu, 12th Nov 2020 7:12 pm 

    A response to Pollin and Chomsky: We need a Green New Deal without growth

    https://www.resilience.org/stories/2020-11-05/a-response-to-polllin-and-chomsky-we-need-a-green-new-deal-without-growth/

    Might be a bit chewy for our comrades here.

  43. Mich on Thu, 12th Nov 2020 7:13 pm 

    MUST WATCH!

    Dr.SHIVA LIVE: MIT PhD Analysis of Michigan Votes Reveals Unfortunate Truth of U.S. Voting Systems.

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ztu5Y5obWPk&feature=youtu.be

  44. Cloggie on Fri, 13th Nov 2020 3:05 am 

    For those looking for the holy grail of hydrogen storage, look no further:

    https://deepresource.wordpress.com/2020/11/13/concrete-borohydride-projects-underway/

    “Concrete Borohydride Projects Underway”

    On the basis of a graduation thesis (pdf 145p, attached), the Port of Amsterdam is building a small vessel, that will be fueled by hydrogen, as stored in NaBH4. Energy content 9 kWh/kg, which is about as good as gasoline. A simple, non-toxic, non-flammable white powder, a bit like washing powder. Just throw it in a forgotten corner and pick it up when needed. All you need to do to release the hydrogen in a perfect controlled manner is throwing the powder in hyper-pure water (cost: 6 euro per m3) and add a whiff of HCl as a catalyst and get bubbles like in a glass of Coca-Cola and you’re good. Easy does it.

  45. Antius on Fri, 13th Nov 2020 5:36 am 

    “Concrete Borohydride Projects Underway”

    That is exciting and the volume energy density is superb. But I would sound a note of caution. Look at the complexity of the chemical reaction step needed to synthesise sodium borohydride.

    https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sodium_borohydride

    8 MgH2 + Na2B4O7 + Na2CO3 → 4 NaBH4 + 8 MgO + CO2
    and

    2 MgH2 + NaBO2 → NaBH4 + 2 MgO

    Gaseous hydrogen can be produced by electrolysis relatively efficiently. But all of these extra reagents and reaction steps are likely to consume a lot of extra energy. That cuts into system efficiency.

  46. Cloggie on Fri, 13th Nov 2020 6:11 am 

    From the thesis, p13:

    Both methods to calculate the energy content will be used in this research. For chemists it is most of the time more interesting to know what the characteristics of the reaction are and they will, therefore, translate to energies at a later stadium of the process. For a system-integrator it is most of the time more interesting to know the energy content in a earlier point of the process. Therefore, two different reactor efficiencies are known. The hydrogen generation efficiency ´H2 is the amount of hydrogen which gets out of the reactor over the amount of hydrogen in sodium borohydride and the stoichiometric water part of the reaction (2 mol H2O against 1 mol NaBH4). Typical efficiencies above 90 % can be found is researches [28]. In the reactor efficiency ´reactor the amount of energy into the reactor is devided by the amount of energy out of the reactor. This can also be seen as the energy content in the sodium borohydride and the energy content in the hydrogen which flows out of the reactor. In this case the heat from the reaction is already taken into account. Here, typical efficiencies around 80% can be expected. Both efficiencies are shown in Equation 2.7 and 2.8.

    p18:

    An even more pure form of H2O can be used in the form of ultra pure water (UPW). Ultra pure water is well known in the semiconductor industry. The main difference between UPW and de-ionised water is that organic particles are removed resulting in a more pure reaction and, therefore, a higher hydrogen generation efficiency in the reactor. H2Fuel-systems b.v. patented this method and claims to reach a hydrogen generation efficiency of 98% [64, 73].

    Fuel cells have higher conversion efficiency than fossil fuel.

    I didn’t have time to read the thesis, it is full of efficiency considerations.

    The Germans have proposed the following energy strategy: they produce the electrolysers and provide financing. Africans build huge solar arrays in the desert with cheap labor and maintain them and transport the borohydride to the ports and take in the return product for reprocessing. Perfect solution for Africa, so they can finally touch some serious money, like the camel drivers did before them. Somehow I would prefer to give it to Africans than Muslims.

    Remember that efficiency is not everything, if you realize that 1 kWh solar electricity in the desert costs ca. 1 cent. Provide the lanels “for free” and let local labor pay them off through borohydride production.

    https://deepresource.wordpress.com/2020/04/29/more-solar-price-erosion-abu-dhabi-2-gw-1-24-eurocent-kwh/

    Obviously we should not store all our eggs in one basket. Aim for 30-50% renewable energy generation at home and import the rest and distribute these new arrays all over the third world. You don’t want to cover fertile European lands with endless solar parks. Roofs only.

    The Japanese are entirely correct to gamble on hydrogen, not batteries. Elon Musk and VW could have been betting on the wrong horse.

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