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Texas size sequestation

Re: Texas size sequestation

Unread postby Tanada » Fri 08 Nov 2013, 16:28:14

ROCKMAN wrote:Keith - That 1% caught my eye also. Seemed much to low at first. But when you think about the many billions of natural sources of CO2 maybe not that farfetched. I've tried unsuccessfully to find an estimate of one obvious source: how much CO2 do the billions of folks on the planet expel in the breathes very year. I figured our resident experts might have a counter view. So far not any denial to the number but a comment on its significance.



Almost all of the CO2 in the whole carbon cycle is dissolved in the oceans, therefore the oceans absorb much of what is emitted every year attempting to regain the balance between the ocean water PPMV level and the air PPMV level. If we stopped emitting today the oceans would keep absorbing for 20 to 50 years depending on whom you ask and then levels would become relatively stable for a very long time.
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Re: Texas size sequestation

Unread postby Tanada » Fri 13 Jan 2017, 09:48:58

This story has been updated.

The first large scale U.S. “clean coal” facility was declared operational Tuesday — by the large energy firm NRG Energy and JX Nippon Oil & Gas Exploration Corp.

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Their Petra Nova project, not far outside of Houston, captured carbon dioxide from the process of coal combustion for the first time in September, and has now piped 100,000 tons of it from the plant to the West Ranch oil field 80 miles away, where the carbon dioxide is used to force additional oil from the ground. The companies say that the plant can capture over 90 percent of the carbon dioxide released from the equivalent of a 240 megawatt, or million watt, coal unit, which translates into 5,000 tons of carbon dioxide per day or over 1 million tons per year. They’re calling it “the world’s largest post-combustion carbon capture system.”

“There are not many coal plants that are being built these days,” said Mauricio Gutierrez, the president and CEO of NRG. “We think that actually having an experience in installing a [carbon capture and storage] technology in existing coal plants will have a pretty significant application in the current plants that exist throughout the country, and for that matter, throughout the world.”

But there is another coal plant near completion in the United States that will also capture carbon dioxide — but using a very different approach. It’s the Kemper Plant, being operated by Mississippi Power, a subsidiary of Southern Co., and expected to be operational Jan. 31. This plant has been designed to turn lignite, a type of coal, into a gas called syngas, stripping out some carbon dioxide in the process. The syngas is burned for electricity and the CO2 is then again shipped to an oil field to aid in additional oil recovery.

Thus, at Petra Nova the capturing of carbon occurs after the coal has been burned — or “post-combustion” — whereas at Kemper, it happens beforehand.

The arrival of Petra Nova and Kemper comes as the incoming Trump administration will have to try to deliver on sweeping promises made to the struggling coal industry. It remains unclear if that will involve any type of support for carbon capture technology or for the industry, but Trump did allude to “clean coal” while campaigning.

The two very different plants together mark the arrival of a technology, often called “CCS” for short, that has been heralded as essential to the future of coal burning in particular (though it has many other applications), but has struggled despite considerable subsidies from the U.S. Department of Energy. Several projects have seen their Energy Department funding withdrawn, but these two now stand at or near the finish line.

According to the Global CCS Institute, which tracks this fledgling industry, there are 21 carbon capture projects worldwide on a large scale that are either operating or have been built, but relatively few of these are in the power generation sector — making Petra Nova and Kemper quite novel in context of the United States. In Canada, the Boundary Dam Carbon Capture and Storage Project, also a “post-combustion” capture plant using coal, has been operational since 2014.

The Energy Department provided grants totaling $ 190 million to the Petra Nova facility, which cost $1 billion overall. Kemper is a considerably more expensive project, representing a $6.91 billion expenditure for a massive plant with a capacity of 582 megawatts. That includes $270 million in support from the Energy Department, also as part of its Clean Coal Power Initiative.

The Department hailed the news Tuesday. “As the world’s largest post-combustion carbon capture system, the Petra Nova project confirms that carbon capture and storage technologies can play a critical role in ensuring the nation’s energy security and providing good jobs for American workers, all while helping us reduce carbon emissions from coal-fired power plants,” said Christopher Smith, Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy, in a statement.

For Petra Nova, a key part of the operation of the plant involves its pairing of power generation with oil recovery. Carbon dioxide injected into the oil field will increase its production, and with oil prices at $50 a barrel or higher, the plant is economical, according to NRG spokesman David Knox. Some of the carbon dioxide then remains sequestered in the oil field after the enhanced oil recovery process.

The plant’s completion is a milestone, says Gutierrez, and a doorway into a wider world of using carbon capture and storage. “I think in the future, this is a technology that is going to be necessary for gas units, as natural gas becomes this bridge fuel,” he said.

Furthermore, Gutierrez said, while the Petra Nova plant is paired with an oil field to help make it economical, that may not always be so with future projects. “We really chose the enhanced oil recovery to improve the economics of the plant to the extent that there is not a price on carbon,” he said. “Potentially that is not necessary to make the economics work.”

The company does not have any immediate plans to adapt a second coal plant with carbon capture technology, but Gutierrez said that if it wanted to do so, the know-how gained at Petra Nova would make the second plant cheaper.

The International Energy Agency and the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change have both said that carbon capture and storage will be a necessary technology to curb humanity’s greenhouse gas emissions.

“Any country that is in need to increase their power generation, and that is happening through fossil fuels, they will be looking at this technology as a way to mitigate the impact of carbon,” said Gutierrez.


https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/ene ... n-the-way/
I should be able to change a diaper, plan an invasion, butcher a hog, design a building, write, balance accounts, build a wall, comfort the dying, take orders, give orders, cooperate, act alone, solve equations, pitch manure, program a computer, cook, fight efficiently, die gallantly. Specialization is for insects.
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Re: Texas size sequestation

Unread postby Tanada » Tue 26 Dec 2017, 17:07:08

The Department of Energy said last week the memorandum of understanding between the two countries would extend to carbon capture as well as methods such as chemical looping and oxy-combustion that make it easier to remove carbon dioxide from emissions.

"Together through the development of clean energy technologies," Perry said in a statement, "our two countries can lead the world in promoting economic growth and energy production in an environmentally responsible way."

Carbon capture and other technologies that seek to prevent carbon dioxide, a byproduct of burning fossil fuels, from entering the atmosphere are considered by analysts and industry officials as critical to the future of oil, gas and coal industries as countries around the world seek to slow climate change. Carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas and a major contributor to global warming.

Earlier this year, at an international energy conference in Houston, the Saudi oil minister called on the industry to find ways to "minimize the carbon footprint of fossil fuels." Three major European oil companies, Statoil, Total and Royal Dutch Shell, meanwhile, are assembling a network of technology and facilities that will capture and store carbon dioxide released from industries in Norway, with a goal of expanding to other countries.

Despite such ambitions, carbon capture systems are few and far between. Even with some success stories - like NRG Energy's retrofitting of a Texas coal plant through the Petra Nova project - the costs remain high. The uses for captured carbon dioxide are limited to pumping it underground to increase oil production, and logistical and legal questions abound around storing it underground.

Petra Nova, installed at the W.A. Parish power plant in Fort Bend County, cost an estimated $1 billion. Each day, the system, which began operating about a year ago, can capture more than 5,000 tons of carbon dioxide, which is piped 80 miles away to an aging oil field. NRG has said it is unlikely to build another such project unless economics change to make it profitable.

The Obama administration awarded a $190 million grant to NRG to develop the Petra Nova project. But President Donald Trump has proposed cutting the program that funds the research and development of carbon capture systems by 50 percent.

Perry has suggested that he would like to put more money into carbon capture research. The technology also has support among some Democrats and Republicans in Congress, who believe that any hope of meeting the 2015 Paris accord's goal on climate change will require the development of carbon capture.


LINK
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