Donate Bitcoin

Donate Paypal


PeakOil is You

PeakOil is You

Fort McMurray on fire

Re: Fort McMurray on fire

Unread postby Newfie » Tue 10 May 2016, 16:06:14

FWIW, I am just reading "in the Kingdom of Ice" aanout the Jeannette expedition.

July 9, 1881
The Corwin was another Arctic boat looking for Jeannette. John Muir was aboard and
"Muir described a "weird red sunset, land mirages into most grotesque forms [and] heavy smoke from the burning tundra.""
User avatar
Newfie
Forum Moderator
Forum Moderator
 
Posts: 9390
Joined: Thu 15 Nov 2007, 03:00:00
Location: US East Coast

Re: Fort McMurray on fire

Unread postby vox_mundi » Tue 10 May 2016, 16:35:24

Wildfires to increase in Alaska with future climate change

New research by University of Montana affiliate scientist Adam Young and UM fire ecology Associate Professor Philip Higuera projects an increased probability of fires occurring in Alaskan boreal forest and tundra under a warmer, drier climate. Their work recently was published in the journal Ecography.

The paper titled "Climatic thresholds shape northern high-latitude fire regimes and imply vulnerability to future climate change" is available online.

Young, also a doctoral candidate at the University of Idaho, projects that by the end of this century the probability of burning in many high-latitude ecosystems in Alaska will be up to four times higher than seen in recent decades. Tundra and the forest-tundra boundary, which have not burned often in the past, are particularly sensitive to projected changes in temperature and moisture. "We looked at the location of wildfires across Alaska during the past 60 years and, not surprisingly, found that they were most common in regions with warm, dry summers," Young said. "The more interesting result of our work is the emergence of a distinct temperature threshold that separates areas that have and have not burned in recent decades. Above this threshold, we see a sharp increase in the likelihood that a fire will occur in a region."

The research highlights that regions crossing this temperature threshold as a result of climate change are the most vulnerable to increased burning.

Boreal forests and tundra store an estimated 50 percent of Earth's soil carbon. Increased fire activity could release more stored carbon into the atmosphere, which would increase atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations and potentially have global implications.

Adam M. Young et al. Climatic thresholds shape northern high-latitude fire regimes and imply vulnerability to future climate change, Ecography (2016) DOI: 10.1111/ecog.02205


It's not just Alberta: Warming fueled fires are increasing

Earlier this year, large wildfires hit spots on opposite ends of the world—Tasmania and Oklahoma-Kansas. Last year, Alaska and California pushed the U.S. to a record 10 million acres burned. Massive fires hit Siberia, Mongolia and China last year and Brazil's fire season has increased by a month over the past three decades.

It got so bad that in 2009, Australia added a bright red "catastrophic" to its fire warning index.

"The warmer it is, the more fires we get," said Mike Flannigan, a professor of wildland fire at the University of Alberta.

... For the entire U.S., the 10-year average number of acres burned in wildfires has more than doubled from about 3 million acres in the mid-1980s to 7 million acres now, according to an analysis of government data by The Associated Press.

Twelve years before the Fort McMurray fire set northern Alberta ablaze, a study by Flannigan and University of Victoria climate scientist Andrew Weaver found that "human-induced climate change has had a detectable influence" on a dramatic increase in wildfires in Canada. Flannigan said the area burned in Canada has doubled since the 1970s "and we think that's due to climate change."

"Globally we are seeing more fires, bigger fires, more severe fires," said Kevin Ryan, a retired U.S. Forest Service scientist who is now a fire consultant, with a recent stint in Indonesia, where fires were big last year.


Warming climate may cause arctic tundra to burn
“There are three classes of people: those who see. Those who see when they are shown. Those who do not see.” ― Leonardo da Vinci

Insensible before the wave so soon released by callous fate. Affected most, they understand the least, and understanding, when it comes, invariably arrives too late.
User avatar
vox_mundi
Fission
Fission
 
Posts: 3662
Joined: Wed 27 Sep 2006, 02:00:00

Re: Fort McMurray on fire

Unread postby Newfie » Tue 10 May 2016, 16:52:13

Thanks Vox.
User avatar
Newfie
Forum Moderator
Forum Moderator
 
Posts: 9390
Joined: Thu 15 Nov 2007, 03:00:00
Location: US East Coast

Re: Fort McMurray on fire

Unread postby dohboi » Tue 10 May 2016, 21:18:02

+1
User avatar
dohboi
Harmless Drudge
Harmless Drudge
 
Posts: 16744
Joined: Mon 05 Dec 2005, 03:00:00

Re: Fort McMurray on fire

Unread postby Ibon » Tue 10 May 2016, 22:01:09

This map shows the range of boreal forest. Take note of one species, The Jack Pine and how extensive its range is particularly in the lower section of the boreal forest.
This species requires fire to germinate as the pine cones will not open and release the seeds without the heat of fire.

The range of this species and its abundance will expand and become increasingly important in the ecology of the boreal forest if fires become more frequent.


Image
Our resiliency resembles an invasive weed. We are the Kudzu Ape
blog: http://blog.mounttotumas.com/
website: http://www.mounttotumas.com
User avatar
Ibon
Moderator
Moderator
 
Posts: 5995
Joined: Fri 03 Dec 2004, 03:00:00
Location: Volcan, Panama

Re: Fort McMurray on fire

Unread postby dohboi » Wed 11 May 2016, 23:09:15

http://www.edmontonsun.com/2016/05/11/c ... use-gasses

Carbon release in wake of Fort McMurray wildfire spikes greenhouse gasses


n the fight against climate change, forests play a critical role — drawing more greenhouse gases out the atmosphere than they emit.

But when they burn, much of those stored gases are released back into the atmosphere.

So far, the fires in Fort McMurray have released the equivalent of roughly five per cent of Canada’s annual greenhouse gas emissions from all other sectors, said Werner Kurz, a senior research scientist with the Canadian Forest Service in charge of Canada’s National Forest Carbon Accounting System.

The average emissions from forest fires in the boreal plains, where the northern Alberta fires are occurring, are about 170 tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalents per hectare, Kurz said.

Multiply that by 239,390 hectares, the size of the Fort McMurray fire May 11, and the fire has already released about 41 megatonnes of CO2 equivalents in the form of carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide.

In 2014 Canada’s total greenhouse gas emissions were 732 megatonnes, excluding emissions from wildfires and other land use, land-use changes, and forestry activities.
User avatar
dohboi
Harmless Drudge
Harmless Drudge
 
Posts: 16744
Joined: Mon 05 Dec 2005, 03:00:00

Re: Fort McMurray on fire

Unread postby vox_mundi » Sat 14 May 2016, 13:45:28

How hot could Manitoba get with climate change? Pretty hot, say scientists

Image

Winnipeg may lose its reputation for its dry cold in a few decades, swapping it out for dry heat instead.

A really dry heat.

Research from the Prairie Climate Centre shows that by 2080, Winnipeg could see summer temperatures similar to those in parts of Texas, unless climate change is addressed.

Researchers from the centre launched a new website that illustrates the effects of climate change over time. It also has a user-friendly tool that can be tailored to see what changes might be in store for a specific location. Prairie Climate Atlas

"Our tool allows you to look at the different regions, look at different municipalities across the prairies and figure out what it means for you," said Ian Mauro, a researcher and director of communications at the centre.

"This is the first time that resolution of detail at the community level has been made available," he said.

Users can track what weather will look like in a specific community in Manitoba in fifty years, then compare it to similar existing environments.
... We're going to be entering a very extreme type of climate. There's going to be more extreme weather, more increased droughts, more increased flooding, more increased forest fires

Many do not fully appreciate how much the Prairie climate is expected to change,” says climatologist Dr. Danny Blair, Scientific Director for the Prairie Climate Centre and Principal of the Richardson College for the Environment. “Our Atlas allows people to see for themselves just how much the climate in their community or region is expected to change.”


Far-north fires likely to grow as climate warms, UM researchers warn

... Warming trends over the past 30 years show that about 30 percent of the forest and tundra areas of Alaska will see four times as much fire activity by mid-century, associate professor Philip Higuera and affiliate scientist Adam Young say. Their paper on high-latitude fire regimes was published in the journal Ecography.

“This highlights regions that are now kind of off the fire radar -- the tundra and forest-tundra border -- will be increasingly on the radar,” Higuera said. “There’s a threshold of 13 degrees C (55.4 degrees F) for July average temperatures, where above that temperature a place has a much higher probability of burning than areas below that temperature. There are a lot of areas in the northern high latitudes that sit right below that threshold. Climate projections for the mid- and end of this century show those areas are bumped above that threshold.”

The problem isn’t simply that as summers get hotter, fires get more frequent. Higuera said research shows places that didn’t burn often in the past will become much more likely to burn in the near future. That adds up to both more and larger fires in the Far North.
“There are three classes of people: those who see. Those who see when they are shown. Those who do not see.” ― Leonardo da Vinci

Insensible before the wave so soon released by callous fate. Affected most, they understand the least, and understanding, when it comes, invariably arrives too late.
User avatar
vox_mundi
Fission
Fission
 
Posts: 3662
Joined: Wed 27 Sep 2006, 02:00:00

Re: Fort McMurray on fire

Unread postby dohboi » Sat 14 May 2016, 14:11:40

http://www.takepart.com/feature/2016/05 ... mpid=pt-tw

The Fort McMurray Blaze Set the Stage for Even Bigger, Hotter Wildfires


Smoldering peat, laced throughout Canada's boreal forest, is expected to release tons of greenhouse gas for months to come.
User avatar
dohboi
Harmless Drudge
Harmless Drudge
 
Posts: 16744
Joined: Mon 05 Dec 2005, 03:00:00

Re: Fort McMurray on fire

Unread postby dohboi » Sun 15 May 2016, 08:10:08

"the Fort McMurray wildfire will result in many more months of carbon emissions from the associated smoldering peat"

http://www.takepart.com/feature/2016/05 ... mpid=pt-tw
User avatar
dohboi
Harmless Drudge
Harmless Drudge
 
Posts: 16744
Joined: Mon 05 Dec 2005, 03:00:00

Re: Fort McMurray on fire

Unread postby dohboi » Wed 18 May 2016, 16:34:26

http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/edmonton/ ... -1.3585921


Fort McMurray fire sweeps east through northern oilsands sites
Fire destroys lodge for workers north of the city


The Fort McMurray wildfire has destroyed one of the oilsands camps north of the city and is roaring eastward toward others in its path.

The fire destroyed all 665 units at Blacksand Executive Lodge, which provided temporary housing for workers in nearby oil facilities, on Tuesday morning. By Tuesday afternoon, flames were at the edges of the Noralta Lodge camp, just a few kilometres east of Blacksand.


https://robertscribbler.com/2016/05/17/ ... kers-camp/

The Beast Growls — Warming-Induced Wildfire Again Doubles in Size, Burns Tar Sands Workers’ Camp

On Monday, strong southerly winds and freakishly hot temperatures near 80 degrees (F) combined to fan the still-raging Fort McMurray Fire in Alberta, Canada. The monstrous, climate change enhanced, blaze swelled. And by the end of the day it had expanded to cover more than 354,000 hectares, 1,360 square miles, or an area larger than the state of Rhode Island.

In a little more than a week, a fire that emergency response personnel are calling ‘The Beast’ had once again doubled in size...

By Tuesday morning, the Blacksand Lodge — a temporary residence for oil workers manning tar sands facilities located 35 kilometers to the north of Fort McMurrary — had succumbed to the flames. A large facility, the Blacksand camp provided 665 residential units for workers.

In total, it’s estimated that about 6,000 workers remain in tar sands facilities and emergency responders are coordinating to organize an air evacuation if necessary.


I wouldn't want to be one of those poor sods--watching the fires surround the site, hoping those coordinating the airlift will do so on time, and that the airlift itself won't be overwhelmed by these often explosive flames and the strong winds they can generate.
User avatar
dohboi
Harmless Drudge
Harmless Drudge
 
Posts: 16744
Joined: Mon 05 Dec 2005, 03:00:00

Re: Fort McMurray on fire

Unread postby dohboi » Thu 19 May 2016, 11:45:54

Once again, Lore gets a big +1.

To steal and re-purpose a phrase: "I don't want to end capitalism; I just want to shrink it down so that it's small enough that it can drown in a bathtub!" :lol: :lol: :lol:
User avatar
dohboi
Harmless Drudge
Harmless Drudge
 
Posts: 16744
Joined: Mon 05 Dec 2005, 03:00:00

Re: Fort McMurray on fire

Unread postby Cid_Yama » Tue 24 May 2016, 17:49:07

Wildfire in Fort McMurray area still out of control over 523k hectares
As much of Alberta experienced a wet and cool May long weekend, officials said firefighting crews had their work cut out for them, after little rain fell in the area of the province’s only out-of-control wildfire.

The wildfire in the Fort McMurray area is now estimated to be 522,892 hectares in size, with 2,500 hectares burning in Saskatchewan – the fire is being fought on both sides of the border.

Municipal Affairs Minister Danielle Larivee said Tuesday morning that while cold temperatures and wet weather were recorded throughout much of Alberta over the long weekend, but that did not extend to the area of Fort McMurray. Officials said the southern edge of the massive wildfire received between 3 and 5 millimetres of rain, while the northern edge – where the fire is most active – received none.

With little precipitation expected in the coming days, crews are expected to have a difficult time fighting the fire.

link


40 new fires in Alberta over the weekend, most from abandoned campfires
There were 40 new fire starts over the weekend, most from abandoned campfires, said Chad Morrison of Alberta Wildfire.


That should read "Politicians facing angry constituents over fire ban on a major holiday weekend, stupidly lift fire ban, initiating 40 new fires."
"For my part, whatever anguish of spirit it may cost, I am willing to know the whole truth; to know the worst and provide for it." - Patrick Henry

The level of injustice and wrong you endure is directly determined by how much you quietly submit to. Even to the point of extinction.
User avatar
Cid_Yama
Fusion
Fusion
 
Posts: 6942
Joined: Sun 27 May 2007, 02:00:00
Location: The Post Peak Oil Historian

Re: Fort McMurray on fire

Unread postby GoghGoner » Thu 26 May 2016, 09:52:01

1.2 mbd of lost production and it shows up almost nowhere in the numbers. Scratching head...

Canadian crude discount shrinks only slightly after fire halts oilsands production

The fires had a muted impact on exports as well. Canadian crude shipments to the U.S. rose 501,000 barrels a day to 3.09 million last week, the highest since the fire began, U.S. Energy Information Administration data show.

Increased shipments from the waters off Canada’s East Coast accounted for the increase, according to Gurpal Dosanjh, oil analyst at Bloomberg Intelligence in New York. Imports into the U.S. Midwest, the bulk of which come from Canada, fell 1.2 per cent to 2.1 million barrels a day, the smallest decline in four weeks.
GoghGoner
Light Sweet Crude
Light Sweet Crude
 
Posts: 1623
Joined: Thu 10 Apr 2008, 02:00:00
Location: Stilłwater subdivision

Re: Fort McMurray on fire

Unread postby dohboi » Mon 30 May 2016, 22:33:23

The phased and voluntary re-entry to Fort Mac, scheduled to begin on June 1, is complicated. Hundreds of undamaged homes may be contaminated and unsafe for habitation.

Tests done near those homes show ash and soil in the area contain substances like arsenic and other heavy metals……(ash with high ph which can be caustic, arsenic, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, dioxins, furans)….
The homes destroyed by fire have been sprayed with a composite material that hardens into a protective shell, acting as a barrier keeping contaminated ash and other debris from spreading through the air.


Flights into the work camps were suspended temporarily this morning because of poor air quality. The fire is currently about 25 km from Fort Mac.

http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/edmonton/ ... -1.3607928
User avatar
dohboi
Harmless Drudge
Harmless Drudge
 
Posts: 16744
Joined: Mon 05 Dec 2005, 03:00:00

Re: Fort McMurray on fire

Unread postby Subjectivist » Mon 15 May 2017, 15:48:19

Fort McMurray, one year later!

Worry in Scorched Fort McMurray: How Many Will Walk Away?

FORT McMURRAY, Alberta — When a group of Fort McMurray homeowners gathered Wednesday evening for a block party, they had beer, rye whisky and soft drinks. What they didn’t have was much of a block.

There are now just two livable houses on the street, where once there were 55. About a dozen more are being rebuilt. But where the rest once stood, there are only muddy lots, vacant except for the capped utility pipes jutting from the ground.

Exactly a year earlier, when a huge, fast-moving wildfire called the Beast was bearing down on the city, the whole of Fort McMurray had to be evacuated in a hurry. The first neighborhood to be incinerated was Beacon Hill, including Beaverglen Close, the street that held the block party.

Though no lives were lost directly to the fire, it destroyed some 1,500 homes and scores of businesses in and around Fort McMurray, the capital of Canada’s oil sands operations. The fire turned vast stretches of the surrounding forest into blackened char, and burned so hot that it melted the aluminum engines in parked cars.

That was the short-term damage. The long-term effects on a city already hard hit economically by sharply lower oil prices are only now coming into focus, with spring and the start of construction season. High on the list is the number of people who fled Fort McMurray last May, through choking smoke and walls of flame, and are deciding to stay away for good.

The Beaverglen partygoers — about two dozen people and two dogs — took a ceremonial walk along the crescent-shaped street, catching up with neighbors, snapping photos and puzzling over exactly where some of the missing houses once stood. It quickly became apparent that the party was both a reunion and something of a farewell: Two residents said they did not intend to rebuild, and a third said he was leaning that way.

Across the city, only 1 percent of the buildings that were destroyed last year have been rebuilt and reoccupied. The city has issued building permits for fewer than half of the rest. Those figures will rise as more property owners reach settlements with their insurers. But Melissa Blake, the mayor of the regional municipality that includes Fort McMurray, acknowledged that the city might not fully repopulate for years.

“We know the events of last year weigh heavily on a lot of people,” Ms. Blake said from her office, where she has a panoramic view of the black scar the fire left on the landscape. “If part of their recovery requires they leave the community, that’s just a reality we have to face.”

A wildfire so hot it melted the aluminum engines in parked cars laid waste to the Beacon Hill neighborhood of Fort McMurray. The debris has been cleared away, but rebuilding work has begun on only a few of the destroyed houses.

Residents and real estate agents agree that before the fire, Beacon Hill was probably the most desirable part of the city. The attraction was not so much the houses — mostly modest in size and style and built in the 1970s — but the surroundings. Unlike newer parts of town, Beacon Hill homes had spacious lots with mature trees, and the street traffic was minimal because there was only one access road into the area.

(That advantage turned into a big problem during the evacuation, when traffic bottlenecked so badly that some residents risked going off-road down a steep hillside to reach the main highway. The ruts from their tires are still visible in the grass.)

Beacon Hill “was the older, family-feeling neighborhood,” said Stephen Nash, a mechanic who lived on Beaverglen and had emergency hip-replacement surgery just a few days before the fire. “You knew everybody on the street,” he said. “There wasn’t a lot of renters.”

Revisiting Fort McMurray, Alberta, One Year After the Devastating Fire
Ian Austen, a reporter for The New York Times, revisits Fort McMurray, Alberta, one year after a raging forest fire swept through the city and forced the entire population to evacuate. He surveys how much has changed for the once-torched land and its residents.

Fort McMurray was long known as a place for Canadians from all over to go for a while, make a quick buck in the oil sands projects and move on again. But the people who are leaving Beaverglen Close now were well rooted.

Dawna Backhouse watched her house being built for her parents 42 years ago. She and her husband, Scott, later bought it and raised two children of their own there. But with Scott now only five or six years from retirement, the couple decided not to rebuild. Instead, they intend to take their insurance payout, rent in another part of town for a year and then move south, possibly to a house they own in Calgary.

“It’s bittersweet; we love this neighborhood,” said Ms. Backhouse, a preschool teacher. “I’ve known some of these neighbors since I was, like, this tall. There were a lot of pros and cons.”

Shelley Kellington and her husband, who lived across the street from Ms. Backhouse, are joining the exodus, too, even though Ms. Kellington’s daughter Melissa and her husband are rebuilding down the street.

“I just don’t have it in me to build,” said Ms. Kellington, who was teaching at the neighborhood primary school when the fire struck, and helped evacuate its students. The school has not reopened, and she and her husband have decided to retire and live in a new motor home bought with part of their insurance settlement. “We will be of no fixed address,” she said. “Who ever would have thought?”

So far, about 28,000 insurance claims have been filed from the fire in Fort McMurray, according to Bill Adams of the Insurance Bureau of Canada, an industry association. A majority have been settled, he said, and those still outstanding are likely to involve houses that were destroyed rather than just damaged.

Mr. Adams said there were no figures yet on how many people were taking the money and walking away rather than rebuilding. If they are doing that, he said, there is a good chance they were underinsured and have discovered that their policies would not pay enough to cover replacement costs.

Settlements vary and are negotiated case by case. But several property owners said theirs were about 20 percent less than replacement cost.

Quinn Lotsberg, a high school vice principal who moved to Fort McMurray 12 years ago, reckons that it would cost him more to rebuild on Beaverglen now than the house would be worth when finished. For that and other reasons, he is considering taking the cash, selling the land for whatever it will fetch and moving on.

“I can’t exactly tell you what will be the deciding factor,” he said as he walked near his lot, which for now is just fenced in.

Since the fire, Fort McMurray has gone from having hardly any residential lots for sale to having a glut, and prices have plunged, according to Andrew Weir, a local real estate broker. At the top of the market before the oil slump, he said, it might take 400,000 Canadian dollars to secure one of the few building lots that came available, but today they can be had easily for less than half that — a sign of how many homeowners are walking away.

The three neighborhoods hit hardest by the fire, in the city’s south end, are still largely deserted, and local businesses are feeling the loss of those customers. At A & J’s Fashions, a clothing store in the smaller of the city’s two malls, sales are only about half what they were before the fire.

“We just have to struggle through another year and see if it gets better,” said Joycelyn B. Reece-Reid, the owner, who put her loss to smoke damage at about 500,000 Canadian dollars, only partly covered by insurance. “The town isn’t the same at the moment,” she said, “but eventually it will get there.”

Life remains badly unsettled for many Fort McMurray residents.

“The kids did not do well coming back,” said Bobby-Jean Loevenmark, whose house was just around the corner from Beaverglen Close. She and her husband are rebuilding, but the new house may not be finished until December. In the meantime, the couple and the three youngest of their five children stayed with friends in Saskatchewan and then a relative in Ontario last summer, and then moved into a rented house across town when school started in September.

“They’re not happy, period, because they’re not home,” she said of her children as she stood in front of her lot in Beacon Hill. “All their friends had lived over here, or up over here, and now they’re all dispersed all over Fort McMurray.” Some had even moved away to former homes in other provinces, she said, a loss her children felt acutely: “Their everyday life got ripped away from them.”

After walking the length of Beaverglen Close on Wednesday evening, the partygoers said their goodbyes, strapped their children into car seats and loaded the dogs in the back. Once more, they were evacuating their neighborhood — consigning it not to the flames this time, but to the night watchmen at the construction sites. Some of them may never return.


https://www.nytimes.com/2017/05/05/worl ... overy.html
II Chronicles 7:14 if my people, who are called by my name, will humble themselves and pray and seek my face and turn from their wicked ways, then I will hear from heaven, and I will forgive their sin and will heal their land.
User avatar
Subjectivist
Fusion
Fusion
 
Posts: 4106
Joined: Sat 28 Aug 2010, 06:38:26
Location: Northwest Ohio

Re: Fort McMurray on fire

Unread postby ROCKMAN » Mon 15 May 2017, 22:59:44

Certainly sad situation for the locals. But that's not what this site is focused upon. Based on the below link the fires did result in a significant but short lived production decline. How short lived? According to the link Alberta just hit a new record high production rate late last year: Nov data...a record month for Alberta oil production - 3.26 million bpd

https://mobile.twitter.com/OilSandsMag/ ... 2518472704
User avatar
ROCKMAN
Expert
Expert
 
Posts: 10625
Joined: Tue 27 May 2008, 02:00:00
Location: TEXAS

Re: Fort McMurray on fire

Unread postby Midnight Oil » Tue 16 May 2017, 08:06:54

Maybe this is a warning sign to us all about our future?

Digging through the earth six years ago, an oil sands miner working north of Fort McMurray struck it big—except it wasn’t oil he hit, but a dinosaur.

Little did he know, he’d just unearthed one of the most significant dinosaur finds, ever
“It’s truly exceptional,” Henderson said, noting the fossil is three-dimensional, a rare treat because most specimens are usually flattened

Remarkable is that at that time
He said the fossil’s near-pristine condition was caused by its quick burial undersea millions of years ago, when Alberta was home to a subtropical climate with lush forests and rivers flowing into a warm inland sea

Yes, by our continued burning of these, we are the driving force that will bring our climate back to that prehistoric era.
Full speed AHEAD!

http://www.metronews.ca/news/edmonton/2 ... berta.html
Midnight Oil
Tar Sands
Tar Sands
 
Posts: 116
Joined: Thu 16 Mar 2017, 15:48:37

Previous

Return to Environment, Weather & Climate

Who is online

Users browsing this forum: Tanada and 18 guests