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THE Biofuel Thread pt 6

Discussions of conventional and alternative energy production technologies.

Biomass Thread

Unread postby Graeme » Mon 17 Mar 2014, 16:56:45

Small-Scale Biomass Power Plants Could Stabilize National Power Grid, Help Local Economies, Research Finds

Small-scale biomass plants could provide substantial benefits to the economies of rural areas, as well as doing a great deal to help stabilize the national grid, according to new research from the University of Missouri.

The research found — as you probably would expect — that it can be notably cheaper for rural areas to generate their own electricity rather than import it from urban regions via expensive infrastructure.

Transporting power through power lines to remote, rural areas is very inefficient and can be expensive for farmers and other rural citizens,” explained Tom Johnson, the Frank Miller Professor of Agricultural and Applied Economics in the MU College of Agriculture, Food, and Natural Resources and professor in the MU Truman School of Public Affairs. “Farmers already have access to a large amount of biomass material left over each year after harvests. If they had access to small biomass power plants, they could become close to self-sustaining in terms of power. If the grid was improved enough, they could even provide additional power to other people around the country, helping to stabilize the national power grid. This could help save rural citizens money and be a boon for rural economies.”

The researchers note that if/once people in these rural areas become bioenergy producers, the great many other advantages of such a setup would become readily apparent. The most notable of these advantages is the potential attraction of new industry and economic activity, the researchers argue.


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Re: Biomass Thread

Unread postby pstarr » Mon 17 Mar 2014, 17:34:30

Agricultural biomass is not 'leftover.' It is a valuable amendment, a source of carbon and tilth in soil. Burning it for energy is a crime against future generations.
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Re: Biomass Thread

Unread postby Graeme » Mon 17 Mar 2014, 17:47:59

DTE Energy's Northern California biomass plant begins operations

The new biomass plant, which began operation in 1989 as a coal-fired power facility, ceased operation in April 2009. DTEES purchased it in June 2010 with plans to convert the plant to biomass. The fuel for the facility is primarily derived from urban wood waste, tree trimmings and agricultural processes.

"We are excited to have this green energy plant operational and appreciate the support we've received from the Port of Stockton, local officials and community leaders to make it a reality," said Steve Sorrentino, vice president, Wholesale Power & Renewables, DTEES. "We recognize the positive economic impact of this facility on the community and look forward to partnering with the city of Stockton for many years to come."

The site, once one of the most polluted in San Joaquin Valley, now is home to one of the cleanest solid-fuel power plants in the country. According to DTEES, the plant is providing 35 high-quality jobs and another 100 indirectly involved with DTE Stockton's fuel supply infrastructure. At its peak, the construction project employed about 100 workers.


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UK's biggest biomass plant prepares for Heathrow take-off

As such, when Heathrow throws open the doors of its new Terminal 2 (T2) in June, it will be fitted to high energy efficiency standards and will be powered, heated, and cooled by the UK’s biggest biomass boiler.

The 10MW biomass combined cooling and heating plant (CCHP) costs around £8.5m and is expected to play a major role in helping Heathrow meet its target of cutting carbon emissions by 34 per cent against 1990 levels, by meeting 20 per cent of T2’s energy needs, including 2MW of electricity, hot water and cooling for data centres.

The boiler is already meeting a low level of demand from the builders of T2, but once the new hub is operating at full pelt, with 20 million passengers passing through the gates each year, it is expected to save Heathrow 13,000 tonnes of CO2 emissions a year compared with a scenario where it burnt only gas and bought grid electricity.

Matt Gorman, director of sustainability for Heathrow, says curbing harmful environmental impacts will be a key plank of the airport’s future growth plans. "Heathrow is a big busy international airport and needs energy, so we set out clearly our commitment to power it in the most environmentally sustainable way in order to play our role in meeting the government’s carbon reduction targets," he tells BusinessGreen.


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Re: Biomass Thread

Unread postby Graeme » Mon 17 Mar 2014, 18:38:30

Is biomass the boiler of the future?

With oil prices on the rise just about all the time and growing concerns over clean, renewable energy, biomass boilers have taken center stage in the debate over what is the most effective and efficient heating source.

In that vein, the company EvoWorld, which manufactures biomass heating systems, went before the Athens Village Board recently to make their pitch for what company representatives call a clean, renewable and sustainable form of energy.

Biomass boilers utilize either wood chips or pellets as a heat source, and while the village is not currently in the market for a new boiler for any of its facilities, they want to keep on top of what’s out there. Moreover, if the village eventually moves ahead with its plans to build a new highway garage, a new heating system would be one of the decisions officials would have to make.
Enter EvoWorld, which has been traveling to various village boards and town councils around Greene County, touting the benefits of its systems, which provide both heat and hot water.

According to Paul Brown from EvoWorld, the company originated in Austria more than 15 years ago, and started manufacturing in the United States in 2012. Its world headquarters are located in nearby Troy, New York.

“We offer renewable, sustainable energy and we can cut down on your energy costs,” Brown told village officials.

He added that while some people associate biomass boilers with traditional outdoor wood stoves, biomass units are much cleaner and have significantly reduced the amount of carbon dioxide they release.

“This is very clean combustion,” Brown said, later adding, “We are over 90% efficient on all models.”

EvoWorld’s biomass boilers are self-loading, using either wood chips or pellets, have automatic startup and shutdown, and are computer controlled, Brown said, so they are easy to operate. The ashes generated by the burning chips or pellets do have to be removed manually every couple of months, though.

Brown said the cost savings compared to oil heat are significant. For instance, if a customer typically spends $40,000 a year to heat with oil, the cost to generate the same amount of heat with wood chips would be $11,852, a savings of over $28,000. Pellets are slightly more pricey, costing $22,222 for the same amount of heat, but that would still represent a savings of $17,778 a year.

Brown pointed out that in order to be comparable in price to wood chips, oil would have to be priced at 70-cents a gallon “to produce the same amount of fuel.”

Where do the chips or pellets come from? The village could either purchase them from EvoWorld or another vendor, and in some cases could even make them.

Village Trustee Robert June asked, “Can we grind down our brush pile and use that?”

Brown said they could, but once they have been chipped the material would need to be kept dry in order to be usable as a heating source.
He said biomass boilers do cost more to purchase than a traditional boiler that runs on oil – the latter would cost roughly $5,000 to install in a residential home, while a pellet boiler would cost closer to $12,000 — but he promised a quick return on investment because of the energy savings.


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Re: Biomass Thread

Unread postby rollin » Tue 18 Mar 2014, 10:19:35

Just one more way to interrupt the methods of nature. Just one more knot in the rope that we will hang ourselves with.
Once in a while the peasants do win. Of course then they just go and find new rulers, you think they would learn.
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Re: Biomass Thread

Unread postby Graeme » Thu 20 Mar 2014, 16:51:17

Energy Authority Pegs $20 Million to Build 14 Biomass Boilers

The Alaska Energy Authority will be building 14 biomass boiler projects this year, and six of those projects will be sharing $20 million from the state's Renewable Energy Fund.

The Juneau Empire reports the six projects are located in Galena, Kake, Ketchikan, Haines, Minto, and Yakutat.

Eight more boilers make up a second tier of the organization's to-do list.

Biomass boilers are built to heat one or more buildings. They can be stoked with cord wood, wood chips or wood pellets and have become popular with the rise of heating oil prices.

Pellets are usually from compressed wood scraps, a potential secondary product from Southeast Alaska's sawmills.

In 2010, Sealaska Corp. installed the state's first large-scale pellet boiler at its Juneau headquarters.


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Biomass CHP powers Scottish paper mill

A Scottish paper mill is now getting power and steam from an on-site, waste wood-burning biomass combined heat and power plant.

The Tullis Russell paper mill in Markinch, Fife previously received its power from a nearby 60-year-old coal plant, which is currently being decommissioned.

The paper mill now gets 17 MW of electricity and 120 tonnes of industrial steam per hour from RWE Innogy’s new 65 MW, £200 million (US$332 million) biomass CHP plant, the largest of its kind in the UK.

The plant is expected to burn between 400,000 and 425,000 tonnes of fuel, largely waste wood, per year. The 10% that comes from virgin material will be sourced from sustainably managed forests, RWE Innogy said. Use of wood fuel is expected to reduce the mill’s carbon emissions by 250,000 tonnes per year.


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Re: Biomass Thread

Unread postby Graeme » Fri 21 Mar 2014, 18:25:29

U.S. Biomass Energy Consumption Grows 60% from 2002 to 2013

U.S. biomass energy consumption grew more than 60% from 2002 to 2013. This growth is almost entirely due to increased consumption of biomass to produce biofuels, mainly ethanol but also a smaller amount of biodiesel and other biomass-based diesel fuels. In 2013, biomass accounted for about half of all renewable energy consumed and 5% of total U.S. energy consumed.

The major U.S. biomass energy sources are:

Wood, including wood-derived fuels such as charcoal and byproducts of paper production.
Waste, including municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agricultural byproducts, and others.
Organic raw material inputs (feedstocks) used to produce biofuels.
From 2002 to 2013, biomass energy converted to biofuels grew more than 500% as U.S. production of ethanol and biodiesel grew. On average, 60% of the energy in feedstocks is converted to deliverable biofuels. The remainder becomes energy losses or coproducts, which are measured as energy consumed by the industrial sector. Most biofuels are consumed as blended transportation fuels—ethanol blended with motor gasoline or biodiesel blended with diesel fuel. Some biodiesel is used as heating oil.

Consumption of wood and waste energy increased just 4% over this period as increases in the consumption of waste energy exceeded increases in wood use. About two-thirds of U.S. wood energy is consumed for industrial processes. Nearly all U.S. waste energy is consumed for electric generation or industrial processes.

Biofuel feedstocks include agricultural crops and other plant material, animal byproducts, and recycled waste. Corn is the feedstock for nearly all of the ethanol produced in the United States. Biodiesel is produced from a more diverse array of biomass resources, led by soybean oil, which accounted for more than 50% in 2013. Recycled waste, such as waste cooking oil, accounted for a little over 10% in 2013.


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Re: Biomass Thread

Unread postby Graeme » Mon 24 Mar 2014, 17:59:15

Carving out a future for biomass conversion to jet fuel

Lignocellulose, a raw material in biomass, can be converted to biofuels and is often considered a long-term alternative to the diminishing supply of fossil fuels. The conversion process involves biomass pretreatment, hydrolysis of constituent carbohydrates and catalytic conversion of platform chemicals. Proposed strategies to convert lignocellulose to aviation fuels have underused components, preventing their commercialisation.

A collaboration between several research groups has taken a hydrolysis-based approach to produce aviation fuel from red maple biomass. The proposed method focuses on synthesising levulinic acid and furfural from lignocellulosic 5- and 6-carbon sugars and catalytically upgrading these to jet fuel range alkanes. This combined techno-economic analysis considers several possible processing options at points throughout the procedure and combines the most viable to create a comprehensive conversion process, which can produce jet fuel priced at $4.75 (£2.88) per gallon. ‘We wanted to understand how the individual processes interlink with each other and how impurities cause problems with downstream processing,’ explains Aniruddha Upadhye, of George Huber’s research group at the University of Wisconsin in the US.

Compared to jet fuel prices today of around $3.00, $4.75 seems a little steep. ‘The researchers are very forthcoming about the current limitations of this approach. With a total capital investment of about $12 per annual gallon of liquid fuel, and 40% of total operating costs devoted to wastewater treatment, additional work is clearly needed,’ says Bruce Dale, a biomass conversion expert at Michigan State University in the US. In fact, the economic analysis flags up several main areas requiring further research to reduce cost. The main operating cost is the treatment of wastewater used in the hydrolysis steps. Improving the recyclability of wastewater and replacing expensive platinum-based catalysts could see the minimum price per gallon drop to a competitive $2.88 against conventional jet fuels.

Upadhye foresees no major problems in scaling up the technologies for commercial use, but further investigation is required into the recovery of products and separation of components to maintain high carbon yields throughout the entire process. ‘It is a critical step in the right direction and many studies in the future will be benchmarked with this work,’ adds Oliver Inderwildi, an expert in biofuels at the University of Oxford, UK.


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Re: Biomass Thread

Unread postby Graeme » Wed 26 Mar 2014, 17:40:07

China’s big plans for biomass

China, the largest producer and consumer of electricity in the world, is also a significant contributor to global pollution. The Asian giant has been frequently making headlines due to its toxic air. Fossil fuels, particularly coal, comprise almost 90 per cent of the country’s current energy consumption.

On the other hand, China only obtains about eight per cent of its total primary energy from non-fossil fuel sources. Official targets released recently aim to increase this share to at least 11.4 per cent in 2015 and 15 per cent in 2020. These latest official targets are building on the Renewable Energy Law passed by the Chinese government in 2006. This law set the scene for the remarkable recent growth of renewables in China, through the systematic implementation of feed-in tariffs, subsidies and other incentives.

Dr Jackson Ewing, research fellow at the Centre for Non-Traditional Security (NTS) Studies at the S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies in Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, says: “This can be seen as part of China’s efforts to reduce the dominance of coal in electricity generation because of supply and pollution-related reasons.”

Biomass, in particular, is a readily available source of fuel in China. However, currently only about five per cent of the total potential is being collected on a systematic basis. Researchers from the Chinese Academy of Engineering have estimated that if all the available biomass feedstock in China were utilised, it would create the energy equivalent of 1.2 billion tons of coal, more than the entire country’s total annual energy consumption.


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Re: Biomass Thread

Unread postby Graeme » Thu 27 Mar 2014, 16:58:08

xtracting carbon from nature can aid climate but will be costly-UN

A little-known technology that may be able to take the equivalent of China's greenhouse gas emissions out of the carbon cycle could be the radical policy shift needed to slow climate change this century, a draft U.N. report shows.

Using the technology, power plants would burn biomass - wood, wood pellets, or plant waste like from sugar cane - to generate electricity while the carbon dioxide in the biomass is extracted, piped away and buried deep underground.

Among techniques, a chemical process can strip carbon dioxide from the flue gases from combustion.

The process - called bio-energy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS) - would make the power plants not only carbon-neutral but actively a part of extracting carbon dioxide from a natural cycle of plant growth and decay.

The technology could be twinned in coming decades with planting forests that absorb carbon as they grow, according to the study obtained by Reuters.

It would be a big shift from efforts to fight global warming mainly by cutting emissions of greenhouse gases from mankind's use of fossil fuels in factories, power plants and cars, but may be necessary given the failure so far to cut rising emissions.

"BECCS forms an essential component of the response strategy for climate change in the majority of scenarios in the literature" to keep temperatures low, according to a report by the U.N.'s Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).

The IPCC, grouping leading scientists, is the main guide for almost 200 governments that have promised to work out a deal by the end of 2015 to slow warming to avert more floods, heatwaves, more powerful storms, droughts and rising seas.

The leaked report is Chapter 6 in a mammoth study due in mid-April in Berlin about solving climate change. It has details of BECCS not included in a draft summary.


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Re: Biomass Thread

Unread postby Graeme » Sat 05 Apr 2014, 17:43:38

Associations release renewable energy outlook paper

Multiple renewable energy trade association have teamed up to produce a single report that contains current market reviews, outlooks and policy recommendations for each respective sector, including biomass power, biomass thermal, waste-to-energy, ethanol, biodiesel and advanced biofuels.

According to contributor Bob Cleaves, president of the Biomass Power Association, the industry added up to more than 750 MW in 2013, a large portion of which is being generated from large-scale projects. All regions of the country have experienced some biomass growth, but the Southeast has experienced the most.

While opportunities for further development are difficult to predict, they are significant, from Cleaves’ perspective. State and federal programs are helping deploy biomass, but more must be done the federal level to ensure that existing biomass facilities remain financially secure, and that more facilities can be built where feasible.

Recommended federal policy changes include energy tax reform to promote all renewable technologies equally; recognition of the carbon benefits of bioenergy: and more recognition of biomass as a valuable renewable resource in federal and state energy policy and renewable targets.


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Re: Biomass Thread

Unread postby Graeme » Tue 08 Apr 2014, 17:29:37

Biomass: Not Carbon Neutral and Often Not Clean

Power companies, facing pressure to find alternatives to fossil fuels like coal, often consider turning to biomass – an umbrella term for fuel that is newly derived from plant matter. Until recently, most people including policy makers assumed all biomass was clean and renewable. But not all biomass is created equal, and our energy policies must distinguish among the good, the bad and the ugly.

For example, as my colleagues and I have written about before (see here and here for starters), burning whole trees to produce electricity increases carbon pollution compared with fossil fuels for decades into the future. On the other hand, some forms of biomass can reduce carbon pollution and other emissions compared to fossil fuels.

Regardless of the source of the fuel – low carbon or high carbon - burning stuff is just inherently a dirty process. The combustion of biomass in power plants releases harmful air pollutants such as particulates, NOx, and SOx. So combustion must occur in plants with high efficiencies and state-of-the art emission controls. This fact was underscored last week in a new report Trees, Trash, and Toxics: How Bioenergy Has Become the New Coal released by the Partnership for Policy Integrity.

The study represents a significant new contribution to our understanding of the pollution impacts of biopower. Using data from biomass power plant permits, it documents the air pollution emitted by the biomass energy industry, and is an important reminder that poorly regulated biomass-fired power plants are an increasingly significant source of air and climate pollution and a threat to public health. The Partnership’s analyses are critical to our efforts to protect air quality, forest ecosystems, and the Earth’s climate.

I hope the report serves as a fresh reminder to legislators and regulators that bioenergy isn't inherently clean, renewable or good. Our policies matter and unless we set out standards high, we'll get a mess--biomess.


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Re: Biomass Thread

Unread postby Graeme » Mon 14 Apr 2014, 18:38:58

Biomass Emissions Question Arises Again

The basic arguments about using biomass as a source of energy have been around for some years, since bioenergy began to gain a following as an alternative to traditional fossil fuels and nuclear plants. Flags went up in 2010, for example, when a six-month study by Massachusetts environmental officials found that biomass-fired electricity might cause a 3% greater increase in carbon emissions than equivalent power from coal by 2050. (The issue does not apply to methane or algae energy generation, also biomass-based.)


The Biomass Power Association of the US naturally disputes Booth’s report, saying “Biomass is a clean, renewable energy source that our nation relies upon to reduce our dependence on fossil fuels.” The industry regards “Trees, Trash, and Toxics” as “an 81-page editorial.”


The EPA needs to work hard on the bioenergy conundrum. Having recently implemented the Burn Wise program to emphasize the importance of consumers burning the right wood, the right way, in the right wood-burning appliance—and having proposed tough rules for the nation’s nine million inefficient wood stoves and boilers—the time has come for the EPA to apply similarly sensible standards to commercial and industrial biomass burning. Ultimately, the EPA’s regulatory decisionmaking may determine the future of a significant transitional power/heating source and a nascent, fast-growing export commodity.


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What is the Greenest Source of Electricity?

Reading this story made me wonder how well people understand the carbon intensity of electricity generation. So here is a quick primer, based on an excellent IPCC meta-study of the issue, looking at full lifecycle emissions of electricity production.


Image

If you are looking just at carbon then hydro is a decent bet, closely followed by ocean power, wind and nuclear. If we could actually make it work biomass with carbon capture and storage (CCS) would be quite something, preferably using the waste from some fast rotation food staple. In the IPCC meta-study biomass with CCS has estimates from -1,368 to -598 g CO2eq/kWh. Sadly this option looks like it is a very long way from being commercially scalable.


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Re: Biomass Thread

Unread postby Graeme » Wed 23 Apr 2014, 17:40:25

Biomass: The World's Biggest Provider Of Renewable Energy

If I asked you to think of renewable energy what comes to mind? I imagine it is skyscraper-sized wind turbines, solar panels on suburban roofs or massive hydro-electric dams. You probably do not think of burning wood or converting crops to liquid fuel to be used in cars. Yet throughout the world bio-energy remains the biggest source of renewable energy. In fact its growth in the last decade has been greater than or similar to that from wind and solar in most places, and those places include the European Union and the United States of America.

The inclusion of hydro-electricity in the graph above is merely an obligation. Most EU countries have stopped building any hydro-electric capacity, so its growth over this period was essetnially zero. The same holds for geothermal energy. Growth of renewable energy since 2000 therefore only really came from three energy sources: wind, solar and biomass.

In percentage terms the two energy sources that saw the most rapid growth were wind and solar. This is unsurprising, given their low starting point. However in absolute terms biomass is the clear winner. Between 2000 and 2011 biomass grew by 49 million tonnes of oil equivalent (toe). Wind and solar only grew by 13 and 6 million toe respectively. In other words the absolute growth of biomass was 1.5 times greater than in wind and solar, and so far the majority of new renewable energy since 2000 has come from biomass, not wind and solar.

The increase in bio-energy in Germany has taken many forms. For example wood-chip heating systems have grown massively since 2000. In a decade Germany went from burning almost no wood-chips for heating to burning 1.2 million tonnes each year.

Germany also now gets a significant portion of electricity from bio-energy. In 2013 bio-energy was used for almost 7% of its electricity production, higher than that from solar PV and just short of that from wind power. Electricity generation from bio-energy receives approximately 4.5 billion Euros in subsidies each year, 30% more than is received by onshore wind in Germany.

The production of bio-energy is also now a significant form of land-use in Germany. According to official statistics a total of 2 million hectares is devoted to crop-based biofuels. This is 17% of arable land and approximately 6% of total land in Germany. Yet it only produces around 2% of Germany's total energy consumption, a remarkably inefficient use of land.

However wood, not crop-based biofuels, is the biggest source of bio-energy in Germany. A total of 53 million cubic metres of wood is used each year for energy generation, which is 41% of the total annual German wood harvest. This corresponds to approximately 4% of Germany's total energy consumption, a figure that has more than doubled in the last decade.

This then is a rather different picture of the renewables revolution happening in Germany.


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Re: Biomass Thread

Unread postby Graeme » Thu 24 Apr 2014, 20:29:28

Letter: Report misses positives of biomass electricity

The Partnership for Policy Integrity's short-sighted report claims biomass electricity is inefficient, avoids regulation and threatens air quality.

The author stigmatizes this beneficial fuel source by failing to report that thermal energy is one-third of U.S. energy demand and when used in combined heat and power (CHP) systems, biomass can be up to 90 percent efficient. She cites one power plant in Oregon but does not review 19 EPA-approved biomass boilers heating schools and hospitals with forest restoration by-products instead of oil, at a savings of $100,000 annually.

Wildfires are increasingly devastating national forests and emit vast amounts of greenhouse gases and particulates. Forest restoration can help, but without local markets, the resulting biomass is either burned on site with zero pollution controls, left to decompose slowly releasing greenhouse gases (if not caught in a wildfire) or it's burned in CHP facilities to power wood-product operations.

Regardless, emissions from biomass will occur. We must therefore choose job creation, energy savings and a net reduction in greenhouse gases – carbon emitted and sequestered by trees is inherently different than fossil fuels, which only sequester if left unextracted.

This report is literally and figuratively missing the forest for the trees.

John J. Audley, president of

Sustainable Northwest

Portland


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Re: Biomass Thread

Unread postby PrestonSturges » Thu 24 Apr 2014, 20:35:37

Few areas have water to spare.
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Re: Biomass Thread

Unread postby Graeme » Thu 24 Apr 2014, 20:47:42

Any ideas on how we can resolve this?
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Re: Biomass Thread

Unread postby pstarr » Thu 24 Apr 2014, 23:16:11

Biomass, sticks for fuel
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Same thing planned for your woods. Except we will use bulldozers. And diesel.
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Re: Biomass Thread

Unread postby Graeme » Fri 02 May 2014, 20:46:34

EIA: US biomass-based diesel imports increased to record levels in 2013; from net exporter to net importer

Total US imports of biomass-based diesel fuel—biodiesel and renewable diesel—reached 525 million gallons in 2013, compared to 61 million gallons in 2012, according to the US Energy Information Administration (EIA). As a result, the United States switched from being a net exporter of biomass-based diesel in 2012 to a net importer in 2013 by a wide margin.

Two principal factors drove the increase in US biodiesel imports, EIA said: growth in domestic biodiesel demand to satisfy renewable fuels targets, and increased access to biodiesel from other countries.

The strongest driver of the resurgence in US biomass-based diesel demand was the increasing Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) target. Both biodiesel and renewable diesel qualify for the biomass-based diesel and advanced biofuel targets, as well as the overall RFS target.

The total RFS target increased from 15.20 billion gallons in 2012 to 16.55 billion gallons in 2013. The biomass-based diesel and advanced biofuels targets increased from 1.00 billion gallons to 1.28 billion gallons, and from 2.00 billion gallons to 2.75 billion gallons, respectively.

Biomass-based diesel fuels have higher energy content compared with ethanol, and thus generate more Renewable Identification Number (RIN) credits per gallon of fuel produced. In addition, renewable diesel meets the same American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standards as petroleum diesel, and is thus not subject to the blending limits imposed on biodiesel.


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Re: Biomass Thread

Unread postby Graeme » Wed 07 May 2014, 18:33:03

Biomass touted as alternative to propane, other costly heating sources

Biomass energy producers believe they are the answer to more expensive, less available heating options, such as propane.

About 3 percent of heat in the Midwest is from biomass sources, said Brian Brashaw, director of the wood materials and manufacturing program at the University of Minnesota. Growth to even 10 percent would create thousands of jobs, and the room for growth exists, he said.

“About one-third of the Midwest doesn’t have access to natural gas (heat),” he said. “Those are our rural, forested areas.”


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