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THE Shale Gas Thread Pt 2 (merged)

General discussions of the systemic, societal and civilisational effects of depletion.

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Re: THE Shale Gas Thread (merged)

Unread postby Graeme » Thu 06 Mar 2014, 19:02:43

Shale, the Last Oil and Gas Train: Interview with Arthur Berman

How much faith can we put in our ability to decipher all the numbers out there telling us the US is closing in on its cornering of the global oil market? There’s another side to the story of the relentless US shale boom, one that says that some of the numbers are misunderstood, while others are simply preposterous. The truth of the matter is that the industry has to make such a big deal out of shale because it’s all that’s left. There are some good things happening behind the fairy tale numbers, though—it’s just a matter of deciphering them from a sober perspective.

In a second exclusive interview with James Stafford of Oilprice.com, energy expert Arthur Berman discusses:

• Why US gas supply growth rests solely on Marcellus
• When Bakken and Eagle Ford will peak
• The eyebrow-raising predictions for the Permian Basin
• Why outrageous claims should have oil lawyers running for cover
• Why everyone’s making such a big deal about shale
• The only way to make the shale gas boom sustainable
• Why some analysts need their math examined
• Why it’s not just about how much gas we produce
• Why investors are starting to ask questions
• Why new industries, not technologies will make the next boom
• Why we’ll never hit the oil and gas ‘wall’
• Why companies could use a little supply-and-demand discipline
• Why ‘fire ice’ makes sense (in Japan)
• Why the US crude export debate will be ‘silly’


Arthur is a geological consultant with thirty-four years of experience in petroleum exploration and production. He is currently consulting for several E&P companies and capital groups in the energy sector. He frequently gives keynote addresses for investment conferences and is interviewed about energy topics on television, radio, and national print and web publications including CNBC, CNN, Platt’s Energy Week, BNN, Bloomberg, Platt’s, Financial Times, and New York Times. You can find out more about Arthur by visiting his website: http://petroleumtruthreport.blogspot.com

Oilprice.com: Almost on a daily basis we have figures thrown at us to demonstrate how the shale boom is only getting started. Mostly recently, there are statements to the effect that Texas shale formations will produce up to one-third of the global oil supply over the next 10 years. Is there another story behind these figures?

Arthur Berman: First, we have to distinguish between shale gas and liquids plays. On the gas side, all shale gas plays except the Marcellus are in decline or flat. The growth of US supply rests solely on the Marcellus and it is unlikely that its growth can continue at present rates. On the oil side, the Bakken has a considerable commercial area that is perhaps only one-third developed so we see Bakken production continuing for several years before peaking. The Eagle Ford also has significant commercial area but is showing signs that production may be flattening. Nevertheless, we see 5 or so more years of continuing Eagle Ford production activity before peaking. The EIA has is about right for the liquids plays--slower increases until later in the decade, and then decline.

The idea that Texas shales will produce one-third of global oil supply is preposterous. The Eagle Ford and the Bakken comprise 80% of all the US liquids growth. The Permian basin has notable oil reserves left but mostly from very small accumulations and low-rate wells. EOG CEO Bill Thomas said the same thing about 10 days ago on EOG's earnings call. There have been some truly outrageous claims made by some executives about the Permian basin in recent months that I suspect have their general counsels looking for a defibrillator.

Recently, the CEO of a major oil company told The Houston Chronicle that the shale revolution is only in the "first inning of a nine-inning game”. I guess he must have lost track of the score while waiting in line for hot dogs because production growth in U.S. shale gas plays excluding the Marcellus is approaching zero; growth in the Bakken and Eagle Ford has fallen from 33% in mid-2011 to 7% in late 2013.

Oil companies have to make a big deal about shale plays because that is all that is left in the world. Let's face it: these are truly awful reservoir rocks and that is why we waited until all more attractive opportunities were exhausted before developing them. It is completely unreasonable to expect better performance from bad reservoirs than from better reservoirs.

The majors have shown that they cannot replace reserves. They talk about return on capital employed (ROCE) these days instead of reserve replacement and production growth because there is nothing to talk about there. Shale plays are part of the ROCE story--shale wells can be drilled and brought on production fairly quickly and this masks or smoothes out the non-productive capital languishing in big projects around the world like Kashagan and Gorgon, which are going sideways whilst eating up billions of dollars.

None of this is meant to be negative. I'm all for shale plays but let's be honest about things, after all! Production from shale is not a revolution; it’s a retirement party.


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Re: THE Shale Gas Thread Pt 2 (merged)

Unread postby Tanada » Fri 07 Mar 2014, 05:31:59

How many of the crazy claims we see for Shale are from industry reports that are vague and excessive compared to being poorly written articles in news and blog reports that misinterpret what the industry actually says? The unfortunate reality is the mass media reporters often have little or know training in how to interpret scientific or projected studies in a calm accurate manner, instead they will seize on a number that grabs their attention and write as if that is the emotionally sound key to understanding what is going on. Rockdoc123, Rockman, Westexas and others are very careful how they express resource potential and proven, but it does not matter how careful they are if the person reporting their numbers is careless in how they explain them.
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Re: THE Shale Gas Thread Pt 2 (merged)

Unread postby ROCKMAN » Fri 07 Mar 2014, 08:58:19

T – Along those lines it was interesting listening to the talk on NPR this morning about the shale gas potential in the EU especially with the focus on the Ukraine and Russian NG exports to them and the rest of the EU. Uncharacteristically the media did make the point that there are virtually no commercial shale gas operations going on in the region at this time. They did, however, report the offer of the POTUS to help “export” our shale gas extraction technology across the Big Pond. Which is ridiculous, of course. The horizontal drilling and frac’ng tech doesn’t belong to the US. It belongs to the service industry…the service industry that is already deployed around the globe. Impressed that they are drilling/frac’ng 5,000’ horizontal laterals in the Eagle Ford Shale? Then you would be really impressed with Maersk drilling/frac’ng 35,000’ laterals on the other side of the Big Pond…and have been doing so for years. The tech we’ve been using in the US to develop the shales has been available to everyone else in the world as long as it has been here. In fact, horizontal/extended reach drilling was initially developed in the North Sea and Africa. I started drilling horizontally in the GOM in 1994 and most of my directional hands were Scottish.

Now consider that the EU countries and others in the region have had a much greater incentive to develop shale gas then we’ve had here in the US given that their NG prices tend to be 3X+ that of ours. So why not a lot of shale gas drilling over there already? Same reason onshore conventional oil/NG development has lagged in many regions: resource ownership. Unlike the US where oil/NG rights tend to be owned by individuals they are owned by those govts. And typically they are slow to adjust to changing economics. Of course, with the surface owners not directly getting a cut of the production there’s a good bit of objection to the potential disruption any drilling surge might bring about. OTOH sitting there freezing for lack of NG in a few years might bring about a change in attitude.

But in the end none of this matters if there aren’t a significant number of viable shale reservoirs to develop across the Big Pond. Good to remember that despite the many dozens of hydrocarbon bearing shale formations we have in the US and with us being the center of the unconventional reservoir development universe more than 80% of that production is coming from just three formations.
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Re: THE Shale Gas Thread Pt 2 (merged)

Unread postby Subjectivist » Fri 07 Mar 2014, 09:14:10

Other than Europe and North America where do shales with hydrocarcon reservoirs exist?
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Re: THE Shale Gas Thread Pt 2 (merged)

Unread postby rockdoc123 » Fri 07 Mar 2014, 10:27:05

Other areas for shale gas/oil:

Latin America......Argentina Nequen basin arguably has shales richer and thicker than anywhere in the US , Colombia shales in the Middle Magdelana basin are just now being assessed by Exxon and others....shales with the right ingredients are known to exist in Chile, Paraguay and Brazil

Australia.....lots of work being done in several areas by various sized companies. Unique shales exist here in the Permian as well as in the PreCambrian

Indonesia....just recently changed regulatory environment to handle shale exploration. Central Sumatra basin thought to hold considerable potential resource

Algeria....both the Devonian Meden Yaha Fm shales and the Silurian Tannezuft shales are extremely rich and fraccable. Sonatrach along with Halliburton have been investigating the potential for a number of years although it doesn't seem to make it into the news.

Tunisa.....although little investigation conducted to this point in time the southernmost part of Tunisia is in the continuation of the Ghadames basin which holds the Devonian and Silurian shales proven to be productive in Algeria

Libya......no work done to this point in time, although the various arms of NOC (Sirte Oil, Agoco Oil) do not press release their results. The Silurian Tannezuft is present throughout most basins in Libya....it is the source rock for the prolific giant and supergiant oil fields.

Saudi Arabia.....the Rub al Khali basin contains various source rocks which are at the right depth of burial and have the key rock characteristics. Aramco has been making efforts of late to understand the basin as a potential source of natural gas which would supplant fuel oil use.

India.......small companies have been looking at the limited size shale basins in NW India as a means of supplying additional natural gas for much needed electricity

China.....a number of basins are being explored by the Chinese. Not much is published on this but the Tarim basin is thought to be quite attractive as are others.

Russia......lots of basins with what is thought to be significant potential. Russian companies don't press release so not easy to tell how much advancement has been made.
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Re: THE Shale Gas Thread Pt 2 (merged)

Unread postby Synapsid » Fri 07 Mar 2014, 17:50:50

Hi rockdoc.

Australia...Precambrian. What would be the origin of the gas found in Precambrian rocks? We did work on stable carbon isotopes in Archaean black shales from South Africa and Isua (Greenland) long ago back in the early 1970s, but I'd never thought of them as potential source rocks for hydrocarbons. Now I'm excited.

(An aside: One of the samples the South African geological survey sent us had a garnet in it; we were looking at stable-isotope ratios of carbon to see if we could detect evidence for photosynthesis. This would count as evidence for lack of communication in the research community, I believe.)
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Re: THE Shale Gas Thread Pt 2 (merged)

Unread postby Tanada » Fri 07 Mar 2014, 18:55:27

Synapsid wrote:Hi rockdoc.

Australia...Precambrian. What would be the origin of the gas found in Precambrian rocks? We did work on stable carbon isotopes in Archaean black shales from South Africa and Isua (Greenland) long ago back in the early 1970s, but I'd never thought of them as potential source rocks for hydrocarbons. Now I'm excited.

(An aside: One of the samples the South African geological survey sent us had a garnet in it; we were looking at stable-isotope ratios of carbon to see if we could detect evidence for photosynthesis. This would count as evidence for lack of communication in the research community, I believe.)


You made me go a searching and I found http://www.dnr.state.oh.us/Portals/10/p ... geof13.pdf

Basically it says organic sedimentary rock makes up part of the Precambrian collection of basement rock in Ohio and is a potential source of Petroleum and Natural Gas.

Other than that we have argued about abiotic oil and gas on this board since the very beginning, the consensus was nearly all the natural gas and every drop of oil tested so far has been unequivocally biotic in origin but that a small percentage somewhere between 0.1% and 7.0% of the produced Natural Gas could be abiotic because you just need to heat the right minerals together to produce it..
the-abiotic-oil-thread-pt-1-merged-archived-t1664.html
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Re: THE Shale Gas Thread Pt 2 (merged)

Unread postby Graeme » Sat 08 Mar 2014, 16:06:01

IEA chief: Only a decade left in US shale oil boom

A surge in US oil and natural gas production has lifted hopes about North American energy security, but that growth will plateau and will be difficult to replicate elsewhere, says Maria van der Hoeven, chief executive of the International Energy Agency, in an interview with the Monitor.

Q: The energy industry has undergone a revolution in drilling techniques that has opened up vast new sources of so-called “tight oil” and “shale gas,” particularly in North America. Is the promise of this unconventional oil and gas overhyped?

A: The light tight oil revolution in the United States is changing the geographical map of oil trade. But we also mentioned [in an IEA analysis] that this growth would not last – that it would plateau, and then flatten and go down. That means that from 2025 onward, it’s again Saudi Arabia and the Gulf states that will come back. Because of the changing trade map, this oil will almost completely go to Asia – China, India, Korea and Japan.

There are some people who really think they can replicate the United States shale gas boom. It’s not as easy as that. The land ownership and the resource ownership go together here in the United States – the only country where that is the case. It’s also about having the right gas industry, the right knowledge, the right infrastructure, the water, the human skills, the geological information, etc. And geology in this part of the world, especially where the shale gas boom is, is quite different from Ukraine or Poland. You can learn from it, but it’s not a copy-and-paste. The United Kingdom is changing its attitude to shale gas. China wants to develop its shale gas, but it’s in a very dry part of the country. South Africa is looking to its shale gas resources. The point is there’s a lot of shale gas in the world, but it’s not as easily accessible as it was in the United States.


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Re: THE Shale Gas Thread Pt 2 (merged)

Unread postby Synapsid » Sat 08 Mar 2014, 17:57:01

Tanada,

Thanks. I read the long post on the abiotic-oil thread. We'd figured the early-Archaean black shales had a good chance of containing organic carbon (where else would all that carbon come from?); we were after evidence of photosynthesis specifically. Lots of work has been done since, using approaches far more sophisticated than ours, yet I still wouldn't go out on a limb about what the earliest evidence for photosynthesis is.

As to abiotic oil, what counts is finding it if there is any, and it's going to be where we look for oil anyway. Oil acts like oil.
I've a vague memory that serpentinization reactions in the lower crust and upper mantle can release hydrogen, and breakdown of subducted carbonates supplies CO2, so methane seems a possible product. I'd expect it to be pretty widely dispersed to begin with.

Hmm...I'm rambling.
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Re: THE Shale Gas Thread Pt 2 (merged)

Unread postby rockdoc123 » Sun 09 Mar 2014, 10:48:02

ustralia...Precambrian. What would be the origin of the gas found in Precambrian rocks? We did work on stable carbon isotopes in Archaean black shales from South Africa and Isua (Greenland) long ago back in the early 1970s, but I'd never thought of them as potential source rocks for hydrocarbons. Now I'm excited.


one of the issues is that the average person thinks of hydrocarbons having originated from buried animal remains. Such is not the case it is mainly bacteria or plant material, both of which were present several billions of years ago. The reason why there is not more knowledge of PreCambrian source rock is likely a combination of lack of preservation, overmaturity (deep burial over a long period of time can convert all of the organics to hydrocarbon of some kind which would have been expelled and lost a long time ago.
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Re: THE Shale Gas Thread Pt 2 (merged)

Unread postby Synapsid » Sun 09 Mar 2014, 17:42:27

rockdoc,

Make that "I'd never thought of them as source rocks for surviving hydrocarbons." As you point out, there's been plenty of time for any hydrocarbons that formed to have passed away.

We knew that the source organics would have been prokaryote; it was the pesky blue-green photosynthesizers we wanted to nail. The rocks we were looking at were about 3.4 billion years old, if memory serves. I still have a chunk somewhere around here. Now that I think about it, the Isua stuff might have been older, maybe 3.75.
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Re: THE Shale Gas Thread Pt 2 (merged)

Unread postby ROCKMAN » Sat 15 Mar 2014, 13:58:00

A little reality check regarding shale gas saving the Ukraine from those mean Russian NG sellers.

Reuters - Ukraine's crisis underscores the importance of Europe's drive for greater energy security and could buoy development of shale gas as the continent looks to cut back on Russian supplies. Significantly, EU politicians left shale out of tougher rules on exposing the environmental impact of oil and conventional gas. Poland also introduced an investor-friendly shale gas bill aimed at cutting red tape and regulatory hurdles. Britain and Poland have for years pressed for shale gas development to help lessen their dependence on imported fossil fuels. Should Russia's seizure of Crimea include a takeover offshore gas fields, Ukraine's best remaining sources of new energy will be its two large, untapped shale finds.

[A tad late with that speculation: the Crimean gov't has just taken control of those offshore fields. Given the dominance of the Russian fleet in the Black Sea it should be a safe bet this move will stick]

"Ukraine has Europe's third-largest shale gas reserves at 42 trillion cubic feet (1.2 trillion cubic metres), according to the U.S. Energy Information Administration." No Ukraine doesn't have the third largest shale gas RESERVES. They have exactly ZERO reserves but there is a great deal of unconventional NG RESOURCES that yet to be proven as commercially viable.

Kiev has signed a deal with Chevron to develop the Olesska block in western Ukraine and one with Royal Dutch Shell to develop its Yuzivska field in the east. "Unrest in any part of the world related to oil and gas production and transport argues in favour of long-term diversity of supply," said the International Association of Oil and Gas Producers. Thus far, Europe's hoped-for shale boom has struggled, with estimates of Poland's reserves slashed, public unease holding up British plans, and outright bans in France and Bulgaria."

So let's hear from the somewhat biased voices of the Ukraine gov't: "In 2012, Ukraine's central government (under Yanukovych) selected Shell and Chevron as the winning bidders for two shale-gas concessions. As is the case across Europe, shale drilling has faced some controversy in Ukraine, but regional councils have voted overwhelmingly to approve the deals. The Shell deal alone is estimated to entail long-term investment of $10 billion, though commercial-scale production is not expected until 2017 at the earliest. The government's target is for 2030 shale-gas production of 0.2 to 0.4 Bcf per day, less than 10% of current consumption levels."

So even the Ukraine gov't says many tens of $billions will need to be invested by foreign companies and even their presumably optimistic forecast is that it will take at least 15+ years before shale gas (of which no one has yet produced any commercial volume) to deliver just 10% of their consumption level. Of course, one has to wonder if the Shell Oil drilling rigs a lining up next to those Russian tanks on the Ukraine border just ready to spud in. Having worked with a few Dutchmen I would guess they'll wait till they know exactly who will have complete control of their future POTENTIAL revenue stream.

Of course that 10% of their consumption figure assumed the Ukraine would still be receiving NG and oil from their offshore fields. Fields that have now been taken over by the Crimean gov't. And the potential out there: Offshore Crimean play: Until now, that is part of the exclusive economic zone of Ukraine, according to the international Law of the Sea. But if Crimea formally votes on March 16 to give up its autonomous republic status in Ukraine and join the Russian Federation, and if the Russian parliament and President Vladimir Putin formally accept, these resources are no longer Ukrainian. They become Russian. The potential is enormous. The Crimean offshore areas already identified represent a third of the undiscovered natural gas resources of Ukraine and a fifth of the undiscovered oil resources…including: oil and condensate – 6 billion bbls and NG - 3.5 TCF. The most prospective for the search of significant deposits is the deep part of the Black Sea. Its potential recoverable resources reach more than 54% of the total Black Sea resources.

Details including cool maps: http://johnhelmer.net/?p=10359#ixzz2w3gkhqBx
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Re: THE Shale Gas Thread Pt 2 (merged)

Unread postby XOVERX » Tue 18 Mar 2014, 13:13:18

Isn't the US still a net importer of gas? Can someone point me to a chart or graph with respect to US gas usage versus domestic production versus amount imported? Thanks.
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Re: THE Shale Gas Thread Pt 2 (merged)

Unread postby Pops » Tue 18 Mar 2014, 13:25:24

If destruction be our lot, we must ourselves be its author and finisher. As a nation of freemen we must live through all time or die by suicide.
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Re: THE Shale Gas Thread Pt 2 (merged)

Unread postby ROCKMAN » Tue 18 Mar 2014, 16:19:04

X – It can get be difficult to see the big picture when dealing with nets especially when folks forget how much NG is produced in the US. Here are the simple and straight forward numbers from the EIA

2013 US NG production: 24,279,569 million cubic feet
2013 US NG consumption: 26,034,354 million cubic feet
2013 US NG exports: 1,572,351 million cubic feet
2013 US NG imports: 2,883,115 million cubic feet
2013 US LNG imports: 96,589 million cubic feet
2013 US LNG exports: minimal

You can see the misconceptions when they are talking about imports/exports and nets. Basically we import/export very little NG. We produce and consume a very large amount of NG compared to what is shipped into or out of the country.
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Re: NO SOUP FOR YOU…OR SHALE GAS!

Unread postby ROCKMAN » Tue 25 Mar 2014, 13:25:01

And not only no soup or NG we’re going to take away your steel industry…eventually. And no Black Sea NG for the Ukraine either. With a bit of a stretch this also ties into the earlier discussion about the Gulf Coast region becoming (over decades, of course) more of energy consumer than an exporter. And in a bit more of a stretch emphasizes the vulnerability of the Ukraine steel makers with respect to their desperately needed cash flow and the loss of Crimean NG. Bottom line: as we go down the PO path we may see more business activity relocating around the fossil fuel producing regions. The movement of refineries into producing regions (especially by China) has already been noted.

From RigZone: Eagle Ford Gas Draws Steelmakers to Texas' Coastal Bend

Upstream, midstream and downstream sectors of the oil and gas industry have long contributed to the economy of South Texas' "Coastal Bend”. Not only is the region accessible to onshore and offshore oil and gas fields, but it boasts the infrastructure necessary to ship, store and process hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon products. {Catch the potential similarities to Crimea?}

Lured by the region's growing port facilities and ready availability of cheap natural gas from the prolific Eagle Ford Shale play, two foreign-owned firms are bringing a newcomer – iron and steel manufacturing – into the Coastal Bend's economic fold. This region is experiencing an uptick in interest from international manufacturers interested in leveraging our low-cost, politically stable supply of natural gas as a fuel source for their manufacturing processes and our immediate proximity to the U.S. (Western Hemisphere) markets."

The Voestalpine Group, an Austria-based producer of high-quality steel used in automobile and home appliance manufacturing as well as oil and gas applications, will invest $750 million to build hot-briquetted iron (HBI) and a direct-reduced iron (DRI) plants at the La Quinta Trade Gateway that Port Corpus Christi is developing near the town of Gregory. The company expects to begin operations in December 2015.

The La Quinta site will also house a $1 billion steel manufacturing facility that Tianjin Pipe Corp.-America (TPCO) is building. The plant, which will produce seamless steel pipe for the oil and gas industry, will represent the largest single investment that a Chinese company has made in a U.S. manufacturing facility. {So instead of importing expensive LNG it’s a better move to bring the mountain to Mohamed.}

The addition of iron and steel manufacturing to the Coastal Bend serves as a case study in how the shale revolution can create new avenues for a region's economic growth. {Or how a region, such as Crimea, suddenly gets a new growth spurt not only from the new oil/NG income but by being the potential center of the future development of fossil fuels in the Black Sea region.}
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Re: NO SOUP FOR YOU…OR SHALE GAS!

Unread postby Subjectivist » Tue 25 Mar 2014, 15:29:30

From the BBC 25march2014
Plans to expand shale gas "fracking" in the UK must learn from leaks and poor monitoring at existing onshore oil and gas sites, scientists say.

A review of 2,152 wells drilled from 1902-2013 found up to 100 "orphaned" wells for which no firm is responsible.

Only two cases of well "failure" were recorded, but legacy sites are not monitored for leaks, the authors note.

The study led by ReFINE (Researching Fracking in Europe) is published in the journal Marine and Petroleum Geology.

It is perhaps the most comprehensive review yet of Britain's inland oil and gas legacy - pulling together scientific papers, government reports, and industry data.
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Re: NO SOUP FOR YOU…OR SHALE GAS!

Unread postby ROCKMAN » Thu 27 Mar 2014, 22:01:35

"...to 100 "orphaned" wells." The Texas Rail Road Commission has had an orphans well fund (they actually call it that) that every operator who gets a drill permit contributes to. It essentially covers plugging and rehabilitation of wells drilled by companies that go bankrupt and disappear. Given how many wells we drill in Texas it's a rather small fee per permit. It really isn't difficult to ding the oil patch for such costs given how much caped we spend on actual operations. No one is going to stop drilling because of those fees. Not that the industry talking heads won't bitch about it. LOL
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Re: NO SOUP FOR YOU…OR SHALE GAS!

Unread postby ROCKMAN » Mon 21 Apr 2014, 09:57:14

Apparently now the unions are saying "Soup for everyone!!!": Fracking Foes Cringe As Unions Back Drilling Boom

So if the POTUS approves the Keystone Pipeline crossing permit after the November elections he can just say it was to help the American union workers. After all: if it’s good for the unions it’s obviously good for the country.

AP — After early complaints that out-of-state firms got the most jobs, some local construction trade workers and union members in Pennsylvania, Ohio and West Virginia say they're now benefiting in a big way from the Marcellus and Utica Shale oil and gas boom. That vocal support from blue-collar workers complicates efforts by environmentalists to limit the drilling process known as fracking. "The shale became a lifesaver and a lifeline for a lot of working families," said Dennis Martire, the mid-Atlantic regional manager for the Laborers' International Union, or LIUNA, which represents workers in numerous construction trades. Martire said that as huge quantities of natural gas were extracted from the vast shale reserves over the last five years, union work on large pipeline jobs in Pennsylvania and West Virginia has increased significantly. In 2008, LIUNA members worked about 400,000 hours on such jobs; by 2012, that had risen to 5.7 million hours. Nationally, the Bureau of Labor Statistics says total employment in the nation's oil and gas industry rose from about 120,000 in early 2004 to about 208,000 last month. Less than 10 percent of full-time oil and gas industry workers are represented by unions.

Alex Paris, head of a Pittsburgh-area contracting firm founded by his grandfather in 1928, said many of the jobs in the early years of the boom went to out-of-state workers, perhaps because the biggest drilling firms come from Texas and Oklahoma. Now there's been a shift to hiring local contractors that use union labor. "It has created more work for our business. There are jobs here for the first time in many, many years. Legitimate, good-paying jobs," Paris said of a region that was hit hard by the decline of the steel industry in the 1980s and '90s.
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Re: THE Shale Gas Thread Pt 2 (merged)

Unread postby copious.abundance » Tue 17 Jun 2014, 23:04:51

Been a while since I posted updates on US production so I thought I'd give an update now. :)

March saw an all-time monthly record for US natural gas marketed production.

Image

Thank you, and have a nice day. :)
Stuff for doomers to contemplate:
http://peakoil.com/forums/post1190117.html#p1190117
http://peakoil.com/forums/post1193930.html#p1193930
http://peakoil.com/forums/post1206767.html#p1206767
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