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World Grain Status (merged)

Re: World Grain Status (merged)

Unread postby dohboi » Fri 09 Jun 2017, 10:10:35

Thanks for the tip on farro, KJ. I'm definitely going to try to find some around here.
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Re: World Grain Status (merged)

Unread postby pstarr » Fri 09 Jun 2017, 10:27:39

dohboi wrote:Thanks for the tip on farro, KJ. I'm definitely going to try to find some around here.

That will be easy. Visit your local Whole Foods Market, wander over to the bulk bin aisle and search for the grains. You will see little bitties like rice, but in different colors some will be whitish and other brown. Those are the grains. The bins will have name cards. Look for the word 'millet'

Or search out a waifish guy with a topnot fashion hairdo and loosely fitting draw-string peasant pants. He's your WFM Natural Food Guru (WFMNFG pronounce 'wmf' nufg'). Ask him.

tnx in advance :) and Cheers :)
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Re: World Grain Status (merged)

Unread postby dohboi » Fri 09 Jun 2017, 13:55:20

Ummmm...we were talking about finding farro, not millet.

Maybe you need reading glasses?? 8)
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Re: World Grain Status (merged)

Unread postby pstarr » Fri 09 Jun 2017, 13:58:54

dohboi wrote:Ummmm...we were talking about finding farro, not millet.

talk to the ponytailed guy with the glazed look. He'll send you to the farro. And the carob
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Re: World Grain Status (merged)

Unread postby KaiserJeep » Fri 09 Jun 2017, 14:20:13

Millet is grass seed, grown in tropical hot/dry desert conditions. Farro is a temperate-to-sub-tropical soft wheat variety. There is a world of difference in taste. Millet is suitable for livestock feed IMHO, if I read "millet" on a bread label, I skip that loaf.
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Re: World Grain Status (merged)

Unread postby pstarr » Fri 09 Jun 2017, 14:30:10

KaiserJeep wrote:Millet is grass seed, grown in tropical hot/dry desert conditions. Farro is a temperate-to-sub-tropical soft wheat variety. There is a world of difference in taste. Millet is suitable for livestock feed IMHO, if I read "millet" on a bread label, I skip that loaf.

"Pearl Millet is today the worlds sixth most important cereal grain. It is a decedent from a wild West African grass which grew in what is now the Sahara desert over 4000 years ago. It is currently planted on over 14 million acres in Africa upon which it is estimated 500 million people depend for their survival. Pearl Millet is the staple crop in the semi-arid region stretching over 7000 km from Sinagal to Somalia (almost 1/6 of the globe at the latitude), upon which African farmers produce 40% of the worlds millet."

Livestock huh?
The final step in processing millet is making flour. Traditional grinding stones used to grind grain to flour usually consist of a small stone which is held in the hand and a larger flat stone which is placed on the ground. Grain is crushed by the backward and forward movement of the hand-held stone on the lower stone. The work is very laborious, and it is hard work for anyone to grind more than 2 kg of flour in an hour.
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Re: World Grain Status (merged)

Unread postby KaiserJeep » Fri 09 Jun 2017, 14:37:40

pstarr wrote:
KaiserJeep wrote:Millet is grass seed, grown in tropical hot/dry desert conditions. Farro is a temperate-to-sub-tropical soft wheat variety. There is a world of difference in taste. Millet is suitable for livestock feed IMHO, if I read "millet" on a bread label, I skip that loaf.

"Pearl Millet is today the worlds sixth most important cereal grain. It is a decedent from a wild West African grass which grew in what is now the Sahara desert over 4000 years ago. It is currently planted on over 14 million acres in Africa upon which it is estimated 500 million people depend for their survival. Pearl Millet is the staple crop in the semi-arid region stretching over 7000 km from Sinagal to Somalia (almost 1/6 of the globe at the latitude), upon which African farmers produce 40% of the worlds millet."

Livestock huh?
The final step in processing millet is making flour. Traditional grinding stones used to grind grain to flour usually consist of a small stone which is held in the hand and a larger flat stone which is placed on the ground. Grain is crushed by the backward and forward movement of the hand-held stone on the lower stone. The work is very laborious, and it is hard work for anyone to grind more than 2 kg of flour in an hour.


Yes, those scruffy, emaciated African cattle eat millet, as do those emaciated African people. I don't begrudge them, if I lived in a tropical desert or semi-arid/near-desert, I might learn to like the taste of millet. But I don't live there, and I think it tastes like cardboard. Millet is indeed a hard grain suitable for flour or animal feed. Millet is suitable for hand cultivation, and after the great power down, may indeed play a bigger role than it does today. Today they make flat breads with it over unhealthful biomass fires - dried dung, sticks and grass.
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Re: World Grain Status (merged)

Unread postby dohboi » Fri 09 Jun 2017, 15:45:01

KJ wrote: "Millet ... after the great power down, may indeed play a bigger role than it does today."

Here we can agree.

Though properly prepared, I find the grain quite enjoyable, and it's got lot's more protein per gram than rice does...like five times more.
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Re: World Grain Status (merged)

Unread postby pstarr » Fri 09 Jun 2017, 17:18:49

You vegans better learn how to enjoy your millet . . .
Image
. . . otherwise its a terminal case of 'wheat belly'
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Re: World Grain Status (merged)

Unread postby vox_mundi » Fri 16 Jun 2017, 10:55:44

Global Diet and Farming Methods 'Must Change for Environment's Sake'

Reducing meat consumption and using more efficient farming methods globally are essential to stave off irreversible damage to the environmental, a new study says.

Researchers examined more than 740 production systems for more than 90 different types of food, to understand the links between diets, agricultural production practices and environmental degradation. Their results are published today in the journal Environmental Research Letters.
"Although high agricultural efficiency consistently correlated with lower environmental impacts, the detailed picture we found was extremely mixed. While organic systems used less energy, they had higher land use, did not offer benefits in GHGs, and tended to have higher eutrophication and acidification potential per unit of food produced. Grass-fed beef, meanwhile, tended to require more land and emit more GHGs than grain-fed beef."

However, the authors note that these findings do not imply conventional practices are sustainable. Instead, they suggest that combining the benefits of different production systems, for example organic's reduced reliance on chemicals with the high yields of conventional systems, would result in a more sustainable agricultural system.

Dr Clark said: "Interestingly, we also found that a shift away from ruminant meats like beef - which have impacts three to 10 times greater than other animal-based foods - towards nutritionally similar foods like pork, poultry or fish would have significant benefits, both for the environment and for human health.

"Larger dietary shifts, such as global adoption of low-meat or vegetarian diets, would offer even larger benefits to environmental sustainability and human health."

Michael Clark et al, Comparative analysis of environmental impacts of agricultural production systems, agricultural input efficiency, and food choice, Environmental Research Letters (2017).


Impact of Climate Extremes on Wheat Quality

Greater temperature variability is expected in future years as a result of climate change. The effects on plants of so-called unseasonal warm and cold periods in the spring are particularly noticeable to gardeners and farmers.

Brief periods of high, or very cold, temperatures around the time of flowering in wheat can damage pollination and so reduce grain yield substantially.

Scientists at the University of Reading emphasise in new research, published today in Annals of Botany, that subsequent extreme temperature episodes can have more subtle, important effects not only on yield but also on the quality of wheat produced for different markets.

"Food security is dependent upon crop quality, not just yield. Similarly, farm incomes derive from crop value as well as yield. Climate change impact assessments should consider crop quality as well as yield. Both require particular attention to be paid to the timing of extreme temperature events in relation to crop development.
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Re: World Grain Status (merged)

Unread postby vox_mundi » Tue 15 Aug 2017, 17:51:56

Temperature Variability and Wheat Quality

Increased hot and cold spells resulting from climate change could affect bread-making quality or seed quality for growing subsequent wheat crops, depending upon when they occur.

Brief periods of high, or very cold, temperatures around the time of flowering in wheat can damage pollination and so reduce grain yield substantially.

Scientists at the University of Reading emphasise in new research, published today in Annals of Botany, that subsequent extreme temperature episodes can have more subtle, important effects not only on yield but also on the quality of wheat produced for different markets.

Food security is dependent upon crop quality, not just yield. Similarly, farm incomes derive from crop value as well as yield. Climate change impact assessments should consider crop quality as well as yield. Both require particular attention to be paid to the timing of extreme temperature events in relation to crop development.


Climate Change Will Cut Crop Yields

Climate change will have a negative effect on key crops such as wheat, rice, and maize, according to a major scientific report out Tuesday that reviewed 70 prior studies on global warming and agriculture.

All these methods "suggest that increasing temperatures are likely to have a negative effect on the global yields of wheat, rice and maize," said the report in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, a peer-reviewed US journal.

"Each degree Celsius increase in global mean temperature is estimated to reduce average global yields of wheat by six percent," said the report.

Rice yields would be cut by 3.2 percent, and maize by 7.4 percent for each degree of Celsius warming (almost two degrees Fahrenheit), it added.

"Estimates of soybean yields did not change significantly."

Temperature increase reduces global yields of major crops in four independent estimates, Chuang Zhao, PNAS


Long-Term Study Suggests Sorghum Yields May Decline Due to Global Warming

A trio of researchers at Kansas State University has found that sorghum yields begin to drop once a certain average high temperature is reached and continue to drop as temperatures increase.

Using statistical analysis, they found that at 33°C (91°F) sorghum yields began to decline—each degree of warming showed a certain amount of decline, which the team plotted on a graph. The team was then able to offer an estimate of yield loss for a given amount of warming—if the average temperature during the growing season was 2°C warmer than the critical point, for example, crop yields would drop by 17 percent.
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Re: World Grain Status (merged)

Unread postby dohboi » Wed 16 Aug 2017, 09:21:41

Interesting. I had thought that rice was more sensitive to heat increases than that.

Of course some of those growing areas could shift, but eventually you run out of room to move...

I believe that earlier estimates were that total crop production falls about 10% for ever degree C of increase. Even that seemed a bit conservative to me.
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Re: World Grain Status (merged)

Unread postby pstarr » Wed 16 Aug 2017, 10:56:49

dohboi wrote:Interesting. I had thought that rice was more sensitive to heat increases than that.

Of course some of those growing areas could shift, but eventually you run out of room to move...

I believe that earlier estimates were that total crop production falls about 10% for ever degree C of increase. Even that seemed a bit conservative to me.

It's unlikely we will run out of room to grow food. Not with the explosive and unprecedented increase in vegetative cover in recent years. 33% more green since the 1970's. During that time (when average temperatures rose .6% c) the area on earth covered by plants in this time has increased by 18 million square kilometres — about 2.5 times the size of the Australian continent — largely due to the fertilising effect of carbon dioxide (CO2).
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Re: World Grain Status (merged)

Unread postby Subjectivist » Wed 16 Aug 2017, 13:57:34

dohboi wrote:Interesting. I had thought that rice was more sensitive to heat increases than that.

Of course some of those growing areas could shift, but eventually you run out of room to move...

I believe that earlier estimates were that total crop production falls about 10% for ever degree C of increase. Even that seemed a bit conservative to me.


Rice comes in multiple varieties but it seems self evident that the types grown in flooded paddies will be much more temperature insensative because the water is a huge heat sink on hot days and heat source on cold nights in early fall.
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