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Global Warming / Climate Changes Pt. 19

Re: Global Warming / Climate Changes Pt. 19

Unread postby dohboi » Thu 12 Oct 2017, 13:23:45

Wow, vox!

And then there's this:

Climate change impacts on Africa, in the coming decades, will not be limited to that continent as hunger drives tens to hundreds of millions of people to immigrant primarily northward to the EU (and elsewhere):

Fall Army Worm Arrives in Africa on the Heels of Climate Change

http://www.sierraclub.org/sierra/fall-a ... ate-change

A rapidly spreading invasive pest now threatens crops across the continent

Endemic to North and South America, the fall armyworm was first spotted in January 2016 in Nigeria. No one knows for certain how it arrived on the African continent, but since its initial appearance the pest has spread to more than 28 countries, including South Africa, Burundi, Rwanda, Kenya, Ethiopia, the Democratic Republic of Congo, and most recently, Sudan and Mali. As it has spread, it has destroyed more than 740,000 acres of maize, the staple food for more than 200 million Africans...


thanks to aslr at asif for text and link
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Re: Global Warming / Climate Changes Pt. 19

Unread postby dohboi » Sat 14 Oct 2017, 13:45:43

The linked reference concludes: "... the specific equilibrium climate sensitivity which considers radiative forcing of CO2 and land ice sheet (LI) albedo, S[CO2,LI], is larger during interglacial states than during glacial conditions by more than a factor two." This is not good news as consensus climate science typically assumes the modern ECS is essentially the same as that during the last glacial period. Thus is it conceivable that before 2100 the effective ECS (S[X) could be as high as 6C.


Peter Koehler, Lennert Stap, Anna von der Heydt, Bas de Boer, Roderik, S. W. van de Wal & Jonah Bloch-Johnson (4 October 2017), "A state-dependent quantification of climate sensitivity based on paleo data of the last 2.1 million years", Paleoceanography, DOI: 10.1002/2017PA003190

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1 ... 0/abstract

Abstract: "The evidence from both data and models indicates that specific equilibrium climate sensitivity S[X] — the global annual mean surface temperature change (ΔTg) as a response to a change in radiative forcing X (ΔR[X]) — is state-dependent. Such a state dependency implies that the best fit in the scatter plot of ΔTg versus ΔR[X] is not a linear regression, but can be some non-linear or even non-smooth function. While for the conventional linear case the slope (gradient) of the regression is correctly interpreted as the specific equilibrium climate sensitivity S[X], the interpretation is not straightforward in the non-linear case. We here explain how such a state-dependent scatter plot needs to be interpreted, and provide a theoretical understanding — or generalization — how to quantify S[X] in the non-linear case. Finally, from data covering the last 2.1 Myr we show that — due to state dependency — the specific equilibrium climate sensitivity which considers radiative forcing of CO2 and land ice sheet (LI) albedo, , is larger during interglacial states than during glacial conditions by more than a factor two."

thanks again to aslr for this
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Re: Global Warming / Climate Changes Pt. 19

Unread postby dohboi » Thu 02 Nov 2017, 14:49:15

good overview of the potential health impacts of climate change.

https://19january2017snapshot.epa.gov/c ... alth_.html

One interesting impact on health mentioned in the above article is the impact that severe weather events and other catastrophes have on the mental health of the victims.

http://www.latimes.com/local/california ... story.html

http://articles.latimes.com/2009/sep/06 ... re-mental6

Also:

Climate change expected to increase the incidence of toxic algal blooms
.

https://www.epa.gov/nutrientpollution/c ... gal-blooms

https://www.nature.com/news/climate-cha ... se-1.21884

http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/acs.est.7b01498

Harvests in U.S. to suffer from climate change.

https://phys.org/news/2017-01-harvests-climate.html

Thanks to SH at asif for text and links
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Re: Global Warming / Climate Changes Pt. 19

Unread postby dohboi » Tue 07 Nov 2017, 18:28:51

A Failure of Imagination on Climate Risks

http://www.resilience.org/stories/2017- ... ate-risks/

Climate change is an existential risk that could abruptly end human civilisation because of a catastrophic “failure of imagination” by global leaders to understand and act on the science and evidence before them.

At the London School of Economics in 2008, Queen Elizabeth questioned: “Why did no one foresee the timing, extent and severity of the Global Financial Crisis?” The British Academy answered a year later: “A psychology of denial gripped the financial and corporate world… [it was] the failure of the collective imagination of many bright people… to understand the risks to the system as a whole”.

A “failure of imagination” has also been identified as one of the reasons for the breakdown in US intelligence around the 9/11 attacks in 2001.

A similar failure is occurring with climate change today.

The problem is widespread at the senior levels of government and global corporations. A 2016 report, Thinking the unthinkable, based on interviews with top leaders around the world, found that:

A proliferation of ‘unthinkable’ events… has revealed a new fragility at the highest levels of corporate and public service leaderships. Their ability to spot, identify and handle unexpected, non-normative events is… perilously inadequate at critical moments… Remarkably, there remains a deep reluctance, or what might be called ‘executive myopia’, to see and contemplate even the possibility that ‘unthinkables’ might happen, let alone how to handle them.


Such failures are manifested in two ways in climate policy. At the political, bureaucratic and business level in underplaying the high-end risks and in failing to recognise that the existential risk of climate change is totally different from other risk categories. And at the research level in underestimating the rate of climate change impact and costs, along with an under-emphasis on, and poor communication of, those high-end risks.
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Re: Global Warming / Climate Changes Pt. 19

Unread postby GHung » Tue 07 Nov 2017, 18:36:32

Such failures are manifested in two ways in climate policy. At the political, bureaucratic and business level in underplaying the high-end risks and in failing to recognise that the existential risk of climate change is totally different from other risk categories. And at the research level in underestimating the rate of climate change impact and costs, along with an under-emphasis on, and poor communication of, those high-end risks.


.... or a simple as not wanting to stampede the herd, eh?
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Re: Global Warming / Climate Changes Pt. 19

Unread postby Tanada » Wed 08 Nov 2017, 11:30:41

Much more plus a lot of pictures at link below quote.

One of the most profound effects of a warming world is underway on US soil – the impact will force thousands to relocate, and have far-reaching, global consequences. Sara Goudarzi reports from Alaska.

Vladimir Romanovsky walks through the dense black spruce forest with ease. Not once does he stop or slow down to balance himself on the cushy moss beneath his feet insulating the permafrost.

It’s a warm day in July, and the scientist is looking for a box that he and his team have installed on the ground. It’s hidden nearly six miles (10km) north of the Geophysical Institute at the University of Alaska in Fairbanks, where he’s a professor of geophysics and heads the Permafrost Laboratory.

The box, which is covered by tree branches, contains a data collector connected to a thermometer installed below ground for measuring permafrost temperature at different depths. Permafrost is any earth material that remains at or below 0C (32F) for at least two consecutive years.

Romanovsky connects his laptop to the data collector to transfer the temperature data for this location – called Goldstream III – which he will later add to an online database accessible to both scientists and interested individuals.

“Permafrost is defined on the basis of temperature, the parameter that characterises its stability,” Romanovsky says.

When the temperature of permafrost is below 0C (32F), for example -6C (21F), it is considered stable and will take a long time to thaw or to change. If it's close to 0C, however, it's considered vulnerable.

Every summer the portion of soil overlaying the permafrost, called the active layer, thaws, before refreezing the following winter. At Goldstream III, on this July day, the summer thaw currently ends at 50cm depth.

As the Earth warms and summer temperatures climb, the thaw is deepening and expanding, causing the permafrost underneath to become less stable.

The consequences, if this thawing continues, will be profound, for Alaska – and for the world. Nearly 90% of the state is covered in permafrost, which means entire villages will need to be relocated, as the foundations of buildings and roads crumble. And if this frozen cache releases the millennia of accumulated carbon it has locked within, it could accelerate the warming of our planet – far beyond our ability to control it.

A vulnerable state

As permafrost thaws, houses, roads, airports and other infrastructure built on the frozen ground can crack and even collapse.

“We are seeing some increased maintenance on existing roads over permafrost,” says Jeff Currey, materials engineer for Northern Region of the Alaska Department of Transportation Public Facilities. “One of our maintenance superintendents recently told me his folks are having to patch settling areas on the highways he's responsible for more frequently than they were 10 or 20 years ago.”

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Similarly, infrastructure built underground – such as those for utilities – is suffering as temperatures rise.

“In Point Lay – on the coast in northwest Alaska – for instance, they're having all sorts of trouble with their water and sewer lines buried in permafrost soil,” says William Schnabel, director of the Water & Environmental Research Center at the University of Alaska Fairbanks. “The permafrost soil has thawed and we get water and line breaks because the ground shifts.”

The concern is even more pronounced for those living in rural areas who don't have enough funds to combat the effects of thawing permafrost. For those residents it's not just about collapsing buildings, which is common now, but also water supply.

Often as permafrost thaws on the side of a lake that a village might use as water supply, there’s a breach and a lateral drain occurs. “It usually requires pretty expensive infrastructure to take water from a lake, bring it to a village and store it and all the components of this infrastructure are vulnerable to thawing permafrost,” Romanovsky says.

If a village depends on an affected lake for water, the community members would have to move their infrastructure and sometimes their entire village to another lake, which can be very costly.

According to research conducted by US Geological Survey, villages like Kivalina in north-west Alaska will have to move within the next 10 years, Romanovsky explains. “But estimates show cost of moving is about $200m (£150m) per village of 300 people.”


BBC The Big Thaw
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Re: Global Warming / Climate Changes Pt. 19

Unread postby vtsnowedin » Wed 08 Nov 2017, 11:53:49

Tanada wrote:Much more plus a lot of pictures at link below quote.

According to research conducted by US Geological Survey, villages like Kivalina in north-west Alaska will have to move within the next 10 years, Romanovsky explains. “But estimates show cost of moving is about $200m (£150m) per village of 300 people.”


BBC The Big Thaw

$200 million to move 300 people? Who is the contractor? Whitefish?
$667,000 per person? or at four to a house $2.7 million per house?
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Re: Global Warming / Climate Changes Pt. 19

Unread postby yellowcanoe » Wed 08 Nov 2017, 12:35:47

vtsnowedin wrote:
Tanada wrote:Much more plus a lot of pictures at link below quote.

According to research conducted by US Geological Survey, villages like Kivalina in north-west Alaska will have to move within the next 10 years, Romanovsky explains. “But estimates show cost of moving is about $200m (£150m) per village of 300 people.”


BBC The Big Thaw

$200 million to move 300 people? Who is the contractor? Whitefish?
$667,000 per person? or at four to a house $2.7 million per house?


It's a remote community with no road access so I am not surprised at the high cost. All the infrastructure -- electrical generation, water treatment, sewage disposal, school, store, etc. will need to be rebuilt at the new village site. I would not expect that people are living in fancy houses so trying to move existing houses to a new village site probably would not make sense. It's going to be a complete rebuild of everything at a new location.

Of course nothing is going to happen for at least three more years as the present administration believe that climate change (and hence sea level rise) is "fake news".
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Re: Global Warming / Climate Changes Pt. 19

Unread postby vtsnowedin » Wed 08 Nov 2017, 12:40:04

If that cost figure is even remotely accurate then the answer is that the village will not be replaced. It will be abandoned and the people will move to the nearest still habitable village or all the way to Anchorage or Juno.
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Re: Global Warming / Climate Changes Pt. 19

Unread postby yellowcanoe » Wed 08 Nov 2017, 13:33:05

vtsnowedin wrote:If that cost figure is even remotely accurate then the answer is that the village will not be replaced. It will be abandoned and the people will move to the nearest still habitable village or all the way to Anchorage or Juno.


That would be the logical thing to do but if aboriginal communities in Alaska are handled in anything approximating the way they are handled in Canada that won't happen. In Newfoundland, the government has managed to eliminate hundreds of remote outports since the 1960's because they were no longer economically viable and too expensive to provide services to. However, remote aboriginal communities are immovable. It doesn't matter that a community has no economic reason for existing and huge social problems due to its remoteness. The majority of residents will always opt to stay right where they are and since they have treaty rights we are stuck with the massive cost of supporting them. That cost keeps rising beyond the rate of inflation since the courts keep mandating higher levels of service and the birthrate tends to be quite high.
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Re: Global Warming / Climate Changes Pt. 19

Unread postby dohboi » Thu 09 Nov 2017, 00:15:25

vt wrote:

$200 million to move 300 people? Who is the contractor? Whitefish?


:lol: :lol: :lol: :lol:
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