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Future Energy Technology News Pt 2

Discussions of conventional and alternative energy production technologies.

Wake up, the clean energy 'revolution' is here

Unread postby Graeme » Tue 11 Feb 2014, 16:46:29

Wake up, the clean energy 'revolution' is here

Call it a detour, a hiccup or a temporary catching of breath.

Despite last year’s dramatic drop-off in newly installed renewable electric generating capacity in the United States, America remains in the thick of a far-reaching sustainable energy "revolution" with "major implications for the U.S. economy, energy security and global concerns over climate change," according to a new report by Bloomberg New Energy Finance.

The Sustainable Energy in America 2014 Factbook shows a seemingly ominous 70-percent collapse in overall renewable capacity additions in 2013 — all the way down to 5.4 gigawatts from a record 18 gigawatts installed in 2012. The report was commissioned by the Business Council for Sustainable Energy and released last week in Washington, D.C.

The weakest year for annual U.S. renewable electric generating capacity additions since 2007 largely was the result of downturn in wind energy development due to inconsistent and eventually expiring tax credits, which offset a record 4.2 gigawatts of solar generating capacity added last year.
But total renewable generation, including hydropower, still rose to nearly 13 percent of the U.S. electric power mix in 2013, up from 12 percent in 2012 and only 8 percent in 2007, according to this second edition of the report, which forecast a return to growth for the U.S. wind installations in 2014 along with continued growth for solar.

Wind energy’s down year in 2013 was one of just a few "noteworthy detours" from the report’s central theme — namely, that "a revolution is transforming how the U.S. produces, delivers and consumes energy" and that these recent advances in energy efficiency, transportation and power generation “have combined to put U.S. CO2 emissions on a long-term downward trajectory.”

Key findings

Among the 133-page report’s key findings are:

• Thanks to advances in energy efficiency, the country’s annual energy consumption in 2013 was 5 percent below 2007 levels.

• Over the same period, "use of lower- and zero-carbon energy sources has grown, while major energy sources such as coal and oil have experienced significant declines."

• Coal’s share of the U.S. power mix dropped to 39 percent in 2013 from nearly 50 percent in 2007 — despite a slight gain from 2012 to 2013 — while more than 40 gigawatts of coal plant retirements have been announced since 2011.

• Natural gas demand experienced an all-time high in 2013 and is on pace for growth again in 2014 — expanding in part as a replacement fuel for oil in transportation and coal in electricity generation.

• The transportation sector "is being revolutionized by new policies, technologies, and fuels," with fuel economy standards set to double by 2025 from 2011 and sales of alternative-fuel vehicles rising sharply.

• U.S. greenhouse gas emissions reductions have fallen 9.8 percent since 2005 and are more than halfway to President Obama’s stated goal of a 17-percent reduction by 2020 compared to 2005 levels.

• Renewable power generation costs are hitting “all-time lows” that are allowing renewable energy to beat fossil fuel competitors, with contracted prices as low as 2 to 3.5 cents per kilowatt-hour for wind energy and below 7 cents per kilowatt-hour for large-scale photovoltaics (PV).

• Fueled by small-scale PV at residential and commercial buildings, "distributed generation emerged as a transformative phenomenon — if not yet in substance, then as a foreshadower of what’s to come."

• Despite clean energy cost reduction, U.S. renewable energy investment "remains highly responsive to policy," as total new U.S. investments in clean energy declined for the second consecutive year in 2013.

• The U.S. has become much more self-reliant on energy, with net energy imports falling by 15 percent in 2013 and by 50 percent since 2005.


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Re: Wake up, the clean energy 'revolution' is here

Unread postby Graeme » Mon 17 Feb 2014, 16:02:28

Amory Lovins: energy visionary sees renewables revolution in full swing

Thirty years since moving to Colorado from Britain, where he was Friends of the Earth's first-ever employee, the 66-year-old sees the energy revolution which he helped kick-start with a series of academic and policy papers now in full swing. "Since 2008, half the world's added electrical generating capacity has been renewable. Non hydro-electric renewables, chiefly wind and solar, were 49% of US and 69% of European capacity added last year.

"In three of the world's top four economies, China, Japan and Germany, there was more generation of electricity from non-hydro renewables than from nuclear in 2012."

Renewables have scaled up incredibly fast, he says. "Worldwide it is faster than mobile phones. More Kenyans now get first electricity now from solar than the grid. China got more generation from wind in 2012 than from nuclear and it added more generation from non-hydro renewable energy than fossil and nuclear combined. It is now the world leader in seven of the 10 renewable energies and wants to be top in all 10. It appears to have added 12GW of photovoltaics in 2012 – that's more than the total that have been installed in the US."

The US, which lagged behind for years, is shifting, too, he says. "The US is a giant laboratory. Different states are going at different speeds. Texas is best for wind, it now gets 10% of its energy from wind because it's good at business; Hawaii is ground zero, with one in 10 households now with a PV system.

"The energy intensity of the US economy has declined 50% in 10 years, mostly because of better design. In 2012 the energy used to make a dollar of GDP went down by 3.4% in one year. We can see a very clear way forward to trebling energy efficiency by 2050."

Most encouraging, he says, is that 14 states for electricity and 20 for natural gas now reward consumers for cutting bills. "That is the reverse of the use of electricity as a commodity. Electricity is an infrastructure, not a commodity. We need to reward the provider to give you lower bills".

Twenty years ago, Lovins proposed what he called the "Hypercar", a hybrid electric/hydrogen-fuelled family vehicle that had only a few parts, was made of lightweight carbon but was stronger than steel, used existing technologies, weighed half a normal car of its size, and could travel the equivalent of 300 miles to the gallon. It was designed to have next to no emissions and, using its batteries, could become a power plant on wheels when parked, eliminating the need for nuclear or coal-power stations.

2014, says Lovins, sees the commercial birth of the Hypercar, with the arrival of the all-carbon electric BMW i-3 family and the 313 miles per gallon Volkswagon XL1 with emissions of just 20g/km. "The car industry is notoriously slow to change," he says, but "you could say the era of the hyper car is starting now."

The most exciting energy conservation advances may be in the way new technologies and business models can be combined, he believes. He was the first to suggest that cars, which are on average used for just an hour a day, be used to generate and store electricity and then be able to despatch it back to the grid.


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Re: Wake up, the clean energy 'revolution' is here

Unread postby Quinny » Tue 18 Feb 2014, 05:30:06

"The energy intensity of the US economy has declined 50% in 10 years, mostly because of better design. In 2012 the energy used to make a dollar of GDP went down by 3.4% in one year. We can see a very clear way forward to trebling energy efficiency by 2050."


AS most of the GDP growth was as a result of QE and not growth in real wealth, I am surprised the energy intensity hasn't declined more!
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Re: Wake up, the clean energy 'revolution' is here

Unread postby ROCKMAN » Tue 18 Feb 2014, 08:02:26

From “Green Energy”: http://technologygreenenergy.blogspot.c ... urces.html

US energy sources: Petroleum – 41%; coal - 25%; NG – 20%; nuclear – 9%; hydroelectric - 4%; others - 1%

1%...Viva la revolution!!!
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Re: Wake up, the clean energy 'revolution' is here

Unread postby pstarr » Tue 18 Feb 2014, 14:03:30

Graeme, Amory Lovins is a true energy visionary and it goes beyond just his HyperCar. His "Hydrogen Economy" is sheer brilliance, comprehensive, engineered, and ignored :x From an earlier post;

pstarr on Feb.11 wrote:I recommend Amory Lovins' 'Hydrogen Economy'. It is a regional network of energy generation, transport, and storage that uses H2 as the base medium. Lovins is a student/teacher of alternative energy, steady-state systems, natural capital, and green technologies. His is a utopian plan to redesign not only power generation around solar electricity, but also human transport around his so-called 'Hyper Cars.' Amory Lovins is truly a great visionary. :)

(It may be said that electricity is also a base medium as the conversion between the two is relatively efficient (electrolisis>gas 50–80% and fuelcell>electricity is 40–60% for instance)

--H2 is generated via electrolysis, as a byproduct from other industrial manufacturing process, and also from a partial combustion of natural gas.
--H2 is stored in tanks a gaseous state, liquified at cold temperature, or as a chemical hydride (or other hydrogen-containing compounds). It can also be contained in one of its many feedstocks and transition materials, ie NG. Or as electricity in the usual way.
--H2 is transported in pipelines, cryogenically in tanks, as solid hydrides. Or as electricity in the usual way.
--H2 is used in fuel cells or ICE's.

A key tradeoff: centralized vs. distributed production

Aside from the energy generation, hydrogen production could be centralized, distributed or a mixture of both. While generating hydrogen at centralized primary energy plants promises higher hydrogen production efficiency, difficulties in high-volume, long range hydrogen transportation (due to factors such as hydrogen damage and the ease of hydrogen diffusion through solid materials) makes electrical energy distribution attractive within a hydrogen economy. In such a scenario, small regional plants or even local filling stations could generate hydrogen using energy provided through the electrical distribution grid. While hydrogen generation efficiency is likely to be lower than for centralized hydrogen generation, losses in hydrogen transport could make such a scheme more efficient in terms of the primary energy used per kilogram of hydrogen delivered to the end user.

The proper balance between hydrogen distribution and long-distance electrical distribution is one of the primary questions that arises about the hydrogen economy.
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Future Energy Technology News Pt 2

Unread postby Graeme » Thu 24 Apr 2014, 19:00:32

17 Emerging Energy Technologies That Will Change The World

Below are technologies related to energy under three key areas of accelerating change: Storage, Smart grid and Electricity generation. Energy storage involves new, cost-effective ways of storing energy, either in improved batteries, as new fuels or other ways. A smart grid is a set of technologies that pairs information with moving electricity around, enabling more efficient generation and use of energy. Electricity generation is characterised by technologies that generate power from unused sources and that more efficiently produce electric power or fuels from sources in use today.

We have included predictions based on consultation with experts of when each technology will be scientifically viable (the kind of stuff that Google, governments, and universities develop), mainstream (when VCs and startups widely invest in it), and financially viable (when the technology is generally available on Kickstarter).

Storage
Fuel cells: Unlike batteries, fuel cells require a constant source of fuel and oxygen to run, but they can produce electricity continually for as long as these inputs are supplied. They inherently displace the need for natural gas turbines, and are ideally used for stationary power generation or large passenger vehicles such as buses (especially at energy-dense future iterations of the technology).

Scientifically viable in 2013; mainstream in 2015; and financially viable in 2016.

Lithium-air batteries: Advances in materials technology is enabling the advance of high energy Li-air batteries which promise an energy density that rivals gasoline, offering a five-fold increase compared to traditional Li-Ion batteries. By using atmospheric oxygen instead of an internal oxidizer, these batteries could dramatically extend electric vehicle range.

Scientifically viable in 2017; mainstream in 2018; and financially viable in 2020.

Hydrogen energy storage & transport: Hypothetical evolution of existing power grids, transporting and storing hydrogen instead of electricity. Could be used in combination with various kinds of energy transformation methods, minimising loss and maximizing storage capacity.

Scientifically viable in 2019; mainstream in 2021; and financially viable in 2022.

Thermal storage: Often accumulated from active solar collector or from combined heat and power plants, and transferred to insulated repositories for use later in various applications, such as space heating, domestic or process water heating.

Scientifically viable in 2022; mainstream in 2024; and financially viable in 2027.

Smart Grid
First-generation smart grid: Electrical meters that record consumption of electric energy in real time while communicating the information back to the utility for monitoring and billing purposes. Can be used for remote load-balancing such as disabling non-essential devices at peak usage

Scientifically viable in 2014; mainstream in 2015; and financially viable in 2016.

Distributed generation: Generates electricity from many small energy sources instead of large centralized facilities. Centralized power plants offer economies of scale, but waste power during transmission, and are inefficient in rapidly adapting to grid needs.

Scientifically viable in 2017; mainstream in 2021; and financially viable in 2022.

Smart energy network: Speculative global energy & power infrastructure and set of standards which can be used interchangeably. Could theoretically mimic characteristics of the Internet in channeling heat, energy, natural gas (and conceivably hydrogen) from local and distant sources depending on global demand.

Scientifically viable in 2019; mainstream and financially viable in 2020.

Electricity Generation
Tidal turbines: A form of hydropower that converts tidal energy into electricity. Currently used in small scale, with the potential for great expansion.

Scientifically viable in 2015; mainstream and financially viable in 2017.

Micro stirling engines: Micrometer sized power generators that transform energy into compression and expansion strokes. Could hypothetically be 3D-printed on the fly and cover entire heat-generating surfaces in order to generate power.

Scientifically viable in 2020; mainstream in 2026; and financially viable in 2027.

Solar panel positioning robots: Small-scale robots able to re-position solar panels depending on weather conditions. More efficient than attaching each panel to motorised tracking assemblies.

Scientifically viable in 2014; mainstream in 2016; and financially viable in 2017.

Second-generation biofuels: New biofuel technologies, such as cellulosic ethanol and biodiesel from microalgae, promise to produce conventional fuel-compatible energy at low or zero greenhouse gas emissions.

Scientifically viable in 2016; mainstream in 2017; and financially viable in 2021.

Photovoltaic transparent glass: Glass with integrated solar cells which converts IR and some visible light into electricity. This means that the power for an entire building can be supplemented using the roof and façade areas.

Scientifically viable in 2017; mainstream in 2020; and financially viable in 2021.

Third-generation biofuels: Moving beyond today’s organisms, 3rd generation biofuels involve genetic modification of organisms to produce new fuels by unconventional means. Examples include direct production of hydrogen from highly efficient algae, and production of energy-dense furans for automotive use.

Scientifically viable in 2022; mainstream in 2024; and financially viable in 2025.

Space-based solar power: Collecting solar power in space, beamed back as microwaves to the surface. A projected benefit of such a system is much higher collection rates than what is possible on earth. In space, transmission of solar energy is unaffected by the filtering effects of atmospheric gasses.

Scientifically viable in 2025; mainstream in 2027; and financially viable in 2028+.

Micro-nuclear reactors: A small, sealed version of a nuclear reactor (approximately a few tens of meters in length) capable of being shipped or flown to a site. Currently able to provide 10 MW of power, plans are for 50 MW capacity in the near future.

Scientifically viable in 2022; mainstream and financially viable in 2023.

Inertial confinement fusion (break-even): An approach to fusion that relies on the inertia of the fuel mass to provide confinement. To achieve conditions under which inertial confinement is sufficient for efficient thermonuclear burn, a capsule (generally a spherical shell) containing thermonuclear fuel is compressed in an implosion process to conditions of high density and temperature.

Scientifically viable in 2013; mainstream and financially viable in 2021.

Thorium Reactor: Thorium can be used as fuel in a nuclear reactor, allowing it to be used to produce nuclear fuel in a breeder reactor. Some benefits are that thorium produces 10 to 10,000 times less long-lived radioactive waste and comes out of the ground as a 100% pure, usable isotope, which does not require enrichment.

Scientifically viable in 2025; mainstream in 2026; and financially viable in 2027.


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Re: Future Energy Technology News

Unread postby kublikhan » Thu 24 Apr 2014, 19:19:55

What the heck is with this list? Fuel cells were not scientifically viable until 2013? NASA was using fuel cells back in the 60s. Smart meters won't be financially viable until 2016? Millions of these things are being installed everywhere today.
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Re: Future Energy Technology News

Unread postby Graeme » Thu 24 Apr 2014, 19:34:27

The authors have consulted experts. Perhaps they mean when these techs will accelerate change as mentioned in the first paragraph.
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Re: Future Energy Technology News

Unread postby Graeme » Wed 30 Apr 2014, 20:11:21

What It Will Take to Farm Sunlight from Space

With the advent of silicon-based photovoltaic solar panels—the kind that directly convert solar energy to electrical current—some 60 years ago, researchers immediately looked to the skies as the ideal place to collect solar energy. Up there, you don't have miles and miles of atmosphere and clouds absorbing, scattering, or blocking out the sun's incoming rays. That means photovoltaic panels should, conceivably, be able to operate at (or very near) their theoretical efficiency limits. Plus, if you position a solar power satellite (SPS) properly over the equator, it will only reside in the Earth's shadow for a few hours every year and thereby provide nearly non-stop energy.

The idea of space-based solar power (SBSP) was formalized in the seminal 1968 report, Power from the Sun: Its Future, by American aerospace engineer Peter Glaser. The paper set forth a conceptual system for collecting unhampered solar energy from massive extra-atmospheric arrays of photovoltaic cells set in geosynchronous orbit above the equator, and transmitting it wirelessly back to Earth where it would be used by terrestrial power grids. In theory, with enough orbiting "solar farms," the energy needs of not just the U.S. but the entire world could be met.

In his paper, Glaser argued that while building, launching, and operating such a power plant was currently beyond the reach of scientific knowledge at the time, those technological advances would be within our grasp in the coming years and decades. So, are we any closer to freeing the entire world from its energy woes with orbiting solar farms than we were at the start of the Space Age? Sure, but we've still got some work to do before that actually happens. Specifically, there are a number aspects that we need to iron out before something like this actually comes to fruition.


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Re: Future Energy Technology News Pt 2

Unread postby Graeme » Thu 08 May 2014, 17:32:32

Citi: These 10 Technologies Will Utterly Transform The World

Electric Vehicles
Description: Citi’s interesting suggestion, from analyst Itay Michaeli, for wider market goes like this: “The consumer purchases a new EV at a much lower price ($11-13k depending on size/ cost) and does so worry free of any residual value risk tied to future battery technology advancements. The operator would own the batteries, bill customers and operate battery switching stations that allow consumers to quickly (and robotically) switch batteries when desired or when taking very long drives.”

Insane stat: Tesla plans to offer a Gen-3 model priced at $US35,000. “A $US35k price point is historically what’s required to begin the path towards achieving sizeable volume of over 100k units (typically 2-3 years after launch), in theory enough to crown Tesla as the 1st mover in the affordable pure EV market.”

Relevant graphic: This cost comparison table

Electric vehicles citi
Energy Storage
Here is the clearest justification for energy storage we’ve yet seen, from Citi’s Jason Channell: Solar generates its electricity when most households are empty, or have limited demand. Saving that electricity for later would dramatically offset consumption prices. He continues: “The potentially greater value is in terms of avoided capacity payments, and the grid stability which storage could provide. If storage could be combined with smart metering and demand response, we could conceivably move to a situation where load is managed (i.e., by dishwashers etc. being turned on automatically when demand was lowest and vice versa) and supply is being managed by storage. This could significantly reduce the amount of stranded capacity and hence wasted cost on an electricity system, as well as improve its reliability.

Insane stat: In the first quarter of 2014, solar and wind combined generated 28% of German electricity.

Relevant graphic: Here is the breakdown of the potential market size for different storage technologies


Image

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Re: Future Energy Technology News Pt 2

Unread postby ROCKMAN » Thu 08 May 2014, 19:54:54

Finally a practical way to save the Ukraine from Russian NG...ship them Bakken LNG: North Dakota LNG, LLC has joined North Dakota Governor Jack Dalrymple and other state officials at an event to announce the arrival of an LNG production facility. Located in Tioga, North Dakota, the plant will be the first-to-market in the state to produce 10,000 gallons per day (GPD) starting in Summer 2014. A phase two facility is scheduled to be operational in the fourth quarter of 2014 and capable of producing 66,000 GPD. NDLNG targets the drilling, fracking and transportation sectors of the unconventional oil and gas industry and will help meet the need for a cost-effective power source by converting natural gas feedstock into value-added liquid fuels. - See more at: http://www.rigzone.com/news/oil_gas/a/1 ... ppqN7.dpuf
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Re: Future Energy Technology News Pt 2

Unread postby Graeme » Thu 08 May 2014, 23:16:01

Your post has nothing to do with future energy tech! It's last century tech.
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Re: Future Energy Technology News Pt 2

Unread postby ROCKMAN » Fri 09 May 2014, 04:57:05

Graeme - No one the planet has every developed small scale LNG capabilities before during the last century or even during this century until now. That makes the technology developed to capture the NG that is being flared for lack of pipelines brand spanking new technology. Many here have been pissing and moaning about the ND NG flares for years. This "new" technology should please them.

I suppose you and I have different definitions of "new".
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Re: Future Energy Technology News Pt 2

Unread postby Graeme » Fri 09 May 2014, 07:23:50

The LNG industry developed slowly during the second half of the last century because most LNG plants are located in remote areas not served by pipelines, and because of the large costs to treat and transport LNG. Constructing an LNG plant costs at least $1.5 billion per 1 mmtpa capacity, a receiving terminal costs $1 billion per 1 bcf/day throughput capacity and LNG vessels cost $200 million–$300 million.


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Re: Future Energy Technology News

Unread postby pstarr » Fri 09 May 2014, 15:54:08

kublikhan wrote:What the heck is with this list? Fuel cells were not scientifically viable until 2013? NASA was using fuel cells back in the 60s. Smart meters won't be financially viable until 2016? Millions of these things are being installed everywhere today.
I know what you mean, Kub.

Thermal storage: Often accumulated from active solar collector or from combined heat and power plants, and transferred to insulated repositories for use later in various applications, such as space heating, domestic or process water heating.

Scientifically viable in 2022; mainstream in 2024; and financially viable in 2027.

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Re: Future Energy Technology News Pt 2

Unread postby Graeme » Fri 09 May 2014, 17:44:17

A Plug That Can Reduce Your Energy Bill by Half

The Parce One smart plug works by measuring and controlling the energy usage of your electronic devices. The plug is Wi-Fi enabled, so it also gives users access to detailed reports and even suggestions on how to reduce energy use. The makers of the Parce One smart plug have recently run a successful IndieGoGo campaign and the funds they raised will go towards the further development of the plug with a view towards mass production in the near future.


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Re: Future Energy Technology News Pt 2

Unread postby pstarr » Fri 09 May 2014, 23:48:06

Does the Parce One smart plug actually turn off the TV and grant said consumer a real life? That would work wonders.
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Re: Future Energy Technology News Pt 2

Unread postby Graeme » Sat 24 May 2014, 18:09:20

Scientists discover how to turn light into matter after 80-year quest

Imperial College London physicists have discovered how to create matter from light - a feat thought impossible when the idea was first theorised 80 years ago.

In just one day over several cups of coffee in a tiny office in Imperial's Blackett Physics Laboratory, three physicists worked out a relatively simple way to physically prove a theory first devised by scientists Breit and Wheeler in 1934.

Breit and Wheeler suggested that it should be possible to turn light into matter by smashing together only two particles of light (photons), to create an electron and a positron – the simplest method of turning light into matter ever predicted. The calculation was found to be theoretically sound but Breit and Wheeler said that they never expected anybody to physically demonstrate their prediction. It has never been observed in the laboratory and past experiments to test it have required the addition of massive high-energy particles.

The new research, published in Nature Photonics, shows for the first time how Breit and Wheeler's theory could be proven in practice. This 'photon-photon collider', which would convert light directly into matter using technology that is already available, would be a new type of high-energy physics experiment. This experiment would recreate a process that was important in the first 100 seconds of the universe and that is also seen in gamma ray bursts, which are the biggest explosions in the universe and one of physics' greatest unsolved mysteries.

The scientists had been investigating unrelated problems in fusion energy when they realised what they were working on could be applied to the Breit-Wheeler theory. The breakthrough was achieved in collaboration with a fellow theoretical physicist from the Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics, who happened to be visiting Imperial.


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Re: Future Energy Technology News Pt 2

Unread postby Graeme » Mon 30 Jun 2014, 19:39:59

10 Innovations Analysts Predict Will Change The World By 2025

Here are their predictions for innovations that will emerge by 2025:

1. The onset of dementia, Alzheimer’s and other neuro-degenerative diseases will decline as more funds are directed toward afflictions Baby Boomers could encounter in their 80s, and studies continue isolating specific chromosomes that cause different forms of the diseases.

2. Solar power will move from environmentalists to the masses as the largest source of electricity in the world, heating buildings, water and powering homes and offices, stores and manufacturing facilities. The sun’s rays will be harvested, stored and converted more efficiently through new materials and methods.

3. Type 1 diabetes will become preventable through a human genome engineering platform that’s paving the way for the modification of disease-causing genes and helping prevent metabolic conditions. As the science advances, patents of organisms and partial DNA segments will arise, complicating who owns which rights to what and blurring the line between nature and commerce.

4. Food shortages and food price fluctuations will cease to exist as genetically modified crops will be grown rapidly indoors with 24/7 light that matches wavelengths to crops, and crops will be bred to resist diseases.

5. Electric-powered airplanes and cars will be more light-weight, travel farther and store more energy with lithium-ion batteries, reversible hydrogen storage options and nanomaterials in fuel cells. As micro-commercial airplanes become feasible for short journeys and small landing spaces, getting a pilot’s license could become the new right-of-passage to adulthood.

6. More things will be connected to the Internet than people as the digital world extends to nearly everything, everywhere. So-called “smart” cars, homes and appliances will be digitally directed and connected across the globe as wireless communications improve.

7. Petroleum-based packaging (think plastics) will be replaced by fully biodegradable cellulose, a type of psedo-plastic derived from forms of plant matter.


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Re: Future Energy Technology News Pt 2

Unread postby Keith_McClary » Thu 03 Jul 2014, 18:57:29

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